Corruption within the framework of behavioral economics .. address and processors
Corruption within the framework of behavioral economics .. address and processors
Author: d. The appearance of Mohammed Saleh
Between the manifestations of the younger corruption that occurs on a small scale and in the list and the norms governing social frameworks Eptdiha public service employees to use personal relationships to obtain benefits and preferences and ends with the acceptance of gifts or the payment of bribes secretly, and between the manifestations of the biggest corruption that gets at the top of the hierarchy of government, which is the kind that rampant in totalitarian regimes or in systems that not possess sufficient control policies in the biggest corruption, address and embodied often a lack of clarity about the separation of powers. And between this and that I find in the phenomenon of corruption labeled, systemic corruption is the closest in the interpretation of the manifestations of corruption rampant in Iraq or epidemic caused primarily by the weakness of the administrative regulation and administrative processes found within the hierarchy of government one.
As it is born of weakness or weakness in the administrative structure of the state of contradiction or reverse correlation in functional relationships. The higher increase in the deterioration of the administrative type exercise increases for government employees corruption, such as bribery, extortion and embezzlement of public funds and others. Coincides weakness administrative with the phenomenon of widespread culture of impunity, as well as the emergence of functional forces act according to the whims and freedom is high, and the emergence of a monopoly career influence of the forces and the accompanying lack of transparency and disclosure with a stark disparity in wages and salaries, privileges and Alhawwavz.ually though, agree schools intellectual and moral trends all that corruption is the use of bribery generally to influence the actions of government officials. More generally, for personal gains through public office through bribery, extortion and embezzlement of public money. Since corruption is a non-supervisor behavior such as those who hold power, Kalmderan and various government officials over the use of illegal public powers and harnessed for their own benefit, it is the philosophical, religious and moral expresses the lack of cleanliness of the spirit and the soul and morality and the deviation from the ideals and principles of humanitarian Semitism. Roman count as political and Khatib hotshot Hichiron106-43 BC is first identified corruption and bribery to give up good habits after the Greek philosopher Avlaton384-322q.m.
The emergence of systemic corruption and rootedness
The information given by that report, which was issued by the International Monetary Fund Foundation in 1999 did not surprise me and was entitled: «corruption around the world». Acharvi when one of its chapters to the long queue of applicants on the job in the tax department in the State of West African States, and that all applicants are interested in the appointment without pay. Iraq was at the time staff are paid a monthly salary is not enough just living one day or even ISD monthly transportation expenses between home and the workplace !!
Thus equally divided as a result of free work between the employee in Iraq and the job seeker in that queue in West Africa during Altsaina decade Almadi.oukd became the deterioration of the standard of living is such dominant after inflation hit an annual barrier of 50 percent, devouring exceeded the savings of individuals with limited income and on head of government employees category (representatives of the middle class) to join the ranks of the poor class and together constitute the forces deprived of livelihood and life, which represents at the same time the proportion of 85 percent of the Iraqi nation, destitute, which has become a net wealth Center (negative). In the midst of systemic corruption that has become run free from the forces of functional semi-hungry deprivation practiced on a large scale, it forgave the former political system in the nineties of the last century, two things Khtiran in behavior and acting career, namely:
- The freedom to work heavy work outside official working hours (text: switch to clay workers) was a call for all employees in the Career, starting from the end of the judges and teachers.
- Allow for public officials to accept gifts from customers for being the outlines of human relationships in difficult circumstance.
The decline and weakness in functional device power embodied in the phenomenon of transformation or change the functional behavior of the class day I realized that a government job and responsibilities as a public service and without income or wage and rewarding Alastmrarvi this case to the end, they have to change relationships and functional principles. The practice of honorable public service as a service to the public and without rewarding reward helps to live and Astmraralehiah, have transformed the continuation of the right to engage in job place, free of charge (unlawfully) to acquire and income-generating functional of the face is also right. He became a government employee look the same across the hierarchy as a holder of the privilege that allows him to conduct the business of his interests first, and under the terms of the acquisition. Thus spread corruption systemic conflicts within the functional layer itself disadvantaged, a bribery and extortion practiced on each other, as well as the breadth of embezzlement of public money. Msdrtsoegha and that is the strength of tenure and its ability to generate income from its sources of illegal job. As long as the Aakavi work effort wage granted, public office has given flexible usages other than work and institutional discipline usual when dealing with the external environment, or the so-called third-party who are customers and the expansion of the interpretation of the limits of dealing with the parties mentioned Bmtatih justify accepting bribes, extortion and abuse of public money. Falakon employee who gives of his best to Aakavih Agra significant (that is, work for Aakavi pay), the only concession available to employees of public service is to enjoy the job tenure in terms of time, place and validity. Became a public office is used is not an honorable task of public service, but are free of charge possession rewarding, require that the income-generating rewarding commensurate with the time and place and functional authority granted to him whether to accept gifts or receive bribes and others. Promised job tenure and retention (career attire) Alternative easy to meet with the option granted by the previous political system Layer staff, which is to work in professions arduous (Blue Suit) outside the time function (specifically acts of clay) for retaining functional their positions Bajaur and salaries symbolic Do not block the breath of living.
The political system in Iraq change, corruption systemic Pat legacy wounded in the flare-functional device in the big State in which the preparation of civil servants recruited from 850 000 employees in 2003 to nearly 4 million employees prevailed in early 2014 and is said to be a ghost staff and share the monthly salary with staff the real corrupt, cappuccinos thing for a government job sizeable enough is also rooted in the phenomenon of systemic corruption !.
Address the deep-rooted corruption
The behavioral economics approach of economic analysis which integrates psychological insight into the behavior of individuals, in order to interpret economic decisions curricula. This flag was rushed from his observation of the behavior of abnormal or anomalous for individuals and that can not be interpreted in the standard models of rational choice. And taking provides explanations about the behavior of abnormal or aberrant individuals by providing human and social knowledge and emotional bias in making Alaqrar.fly Although the standard assumptions adopted by the neoclassical school in the economy, and that the individuals have an unlimited power of rationality and willpower and selfishness to their advantage, and that if they met all lead to a very prosperous society relying on the legacy of the traditional economy, which sees the human race an absolute power of rationality that Ptotherha (Baldaronih), which are also seen in the case of self-interest and job search for the best ways unique to ourselves. But the question remains: Who is responsible for the mistakes made hundreds of years ago and carried on the premise that human beings are rational in their actions?
Accordingly, the back of behavioral economics in the past four decades as a method of economic analysis explains: Why do people act irrationally?
This is the flag of the most science modernity in the field of academic studies that combine economics psychology, which took the lead role of the foundation in the decision-making Alaguetsadah.az found in real life that individuals are prone to emotion and excitement, love, jealousy and grief, all of which make them act irrationally ! Economic choices in the science of behavioral economics can not be explained by the application of existing standard options on the axioms Altvdal.valman Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky theory has found that individuals when faced with uncertainty or uncertainty, they are to Aatsrvon rational or even randomly or are floundering, but they act and assigned certain and predictable ways. Ideally, they use their ways very mental shorthand or resort to approximate their accounts and judgments based on practical experience rather than on scientific knowledge, all of which dubbed authors in the above -balafal Almugeh.fndma Tsak fireplace fire will take careful in the future, man Messier his emotions and behaviors often and not necessarily the choice Baklanath or choices based on rational self-interest as the school tell us the main currents in the economy.
Theory «Pacific acupuncture»
As we have noted above that the behavioral economists have found that all the psychological and neurological deviations make individuals make their choices in a manner contrary it seems contrary to the interests or favorite. Therefore, the idea of acupuncture Pacific is based on scientific research that shows the possibility of converting individuals to make better decisions. The idea of acupuncture Pacific has appeared in a book published in 2008 in the name of: Freakonomics in which he confronted Malvah: to show the possibility of behavioral economics and its role in improving the effectiveness of the government's performance, where the authors concluded themselves to work in the two units have been developed in the Office of each of US President Obama and the other in the Office of the Prime Minister of Britain Cameron, on behalf of «unit acupuncture Pacific». For example, the authors mention of their experiences in the Pacific acupuncture and how to motivate people to pay overdue annual tax for their cars, which sent a message Report in charge of the tax came reads: «Push otherwise you will lose your car», it was noted that the payment has increased twice. When the car to the person in charge of a photograph annual tax status, along with the phrase above payment increased to three times that «twitching Pacific ». The radicalization phenomenon of systemic corruption in Iraq need to be touched by the state using its parental role in the protection of society against corruption as systemic protect society from crime and war, a patriarchal state sponsor.
And it is no longer applying the provisions of the penal code alone is not sufficient, it must use «acupuncture Pacific» within a national strategy to address the root of systemic corruption, so we suggest the following: First, the Inspectors General conducted a survey based on the functions of the most abused of bribery or embezzlement, the occupants in the various ministries and departments, and then re-slice functional selected inauguration replace functional category marked with the practice of the phenomenon of job tenure and the tendency to bribery, to be Tmiizaharihh selected who are renowned for their cleanliness or integrity of true efficiency and fidelity, and are bringing them material and moral incentives, including the names declared in the panel of honor, before Works take over most functions Hsasah.thania conversion of offices of inspectors general in collaboration with the ministry to units «to prick the Pacific» and within a unified national policy in order to achieve the elimination of systemic corruption gradually within a specified period of time.