The politics of Iraq takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic. It is a multi-party system whereby the executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers as the head of government, as well as the President of Iraq, and legislative power is vested in the Council of Representatives and the Federation Council.
Prime Minister of Iraq
The current Prime Minister of Iraq is Nouri al-Maliki,
who holds most of the executive authority and appoints the Council of Ministers, which acts as a cabinet and/or government.
Nouri al-Maliki is Prime Minister and the secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party.
He also holds the positions of acting Interior Minister, acting Defense Minister, and acting National Security Minister, was approved on December 21, 2010. He is currently in his second term as Prime Minister.
Deputy Prime Minister of Iraq,
The 3 current Deputy Prime Ministers (There are 3 Deputy PM's of Iraq)
The current Deputy Prime Minister Saleh Muhamed al-Mutlaq
The current Deputy Prime Minister Rowsch Nuri Shaways
The current Deputy Prime Minister for Energy Hussain al-Shahristani (Former Oil Minister)
The current President of Iraq is Jalal Talabani, (a man of many faces)Talabani was elected President of Iraq on April 6, 2005 by the Iraqi National Assembly and sworn in to office the following day. On April 22, 2006, Talabani began his second term as President of Iraq, becoming the first President elected under the country's new Constitution.
Currently, his office is part of the Presidency Council of Iraq.
Jalal Talabaniis the sixth and current President of Iraq and a leading Kurdish politician. He works closely with other Kurdish politicians as well as the rest of the Iraqi opposition factions.
Vice President of Iraq: As currently constituted, the state of Iraq has two vice presidents or deputy presidents. The office of Vice President is largely ceremonial but prestigious. The Constitution of Iraq, in its "Transitional Guidelines," creates a three-member Presidency (or Presidential) Council, consisting of the President of the Republic and two vice (or deputy) presidents, who must act in unison.
This three-member arrangement is a hold-over from the Iraqi interim government and the Iraqi Transitional Government.
The current Vice President of Iraq Tariq al-Hashimi
The current Vice President of Iraq Khodair al-Khozaei
The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as an Islamic, democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
The federal government is composed of the:
The legislative branch is composed of the Council of Representatives and a Federation Council.
The executive branch is composed of the President / Presidency Council and the Council of Ministers.
The federal judiciary is composed of the Higher Judicial Council, the Supreme Court, the Court of Cassation, the Public Prosecution Department, the Judiciary Oversight Commission, and other federal courts that are regulated by law.
Independent commissions and institutions
The High Commission for Human Rights, the Independent High Electoral Commission, and the Commission on Integrity are independent commissions subject to monitoring by the Council of Representatives. The Central Bank of Iraq, the Board of Supreme Audit, the Communications and Media Commission, and the Endowment Commission are financially and administratively independent institutions. The Foundation of Martyrs is attached to the Council of Ministers. The Federal Public Service Council regulates the affairs of the federal public service, including appointment and promotion.
The basic subdivisions of the country are the regions and the governorates. Both regions and governorates are given broad autonomy with regions given additional powers such as control of internal security forces for the region such as police, security forces, and guards. The last local elections for the governorates were held in the 2009 Iraqi governorate elections on 31 January 2009.
The constitution requires that the Council of Representatives enact a law which provides the procedures for forming a new region 6 months from the start of its first session. A law was passed 11 October 2006 by a unanimous vote with only 138 of 275 representatives present, with the remaining representatives boycotting the vote. Legislators from the Iraqi Accord Front, Sadrist Movement and Islamic Virtue Party all opposed the bill.
Under the law, a region can be created out of one or more existing governorates or two or more existing regions, and a governorate can also join an existing region to create a new region. A new region can be proposed by one third or more of the council members in each affected governorate plus 500 voters or by one tenth or more voters in each affected governorate. A referendum must then be held within three months, which requires a simple majority in favour to pass. In the event of competing proposals, the multiple proposals are put to a ballot and the proposal with the most supporters is put to the referendum. In the event of an affirmative referendum a Transitional Legislative Assembly is elected for one year, which has the task of writing a constitution for the Region, which is then put to a referendum requiring a simple majority to pass. The President, Prime Minister and Ministers of the region are elected by simple majority, in contrast to the Iraqi Council of Representatives which requires two thirds support.
Iraq is divided into 18 provincess, which are further divided into districts:
The Council of Representatives of Iraq unanimously approved al-Maliki's new government. Twenty-nine ministers were approved, including Shias, Sunnis and Kurds. In reaction, al-Maliki issued his new government's programme and also vowed to make Iraq a "truly democratic state that respects human rights." However, he criticised the lack of any female nominees and warned that "given the circumstances it has been created under, this government does not satisfy the people nor the needs of our country. The effort and the will to make it work in the best possible way it can is there."
Al-Maliki took the role as acting Minister of Defence, Interior and National Security "until appropriate candidates are found." Former Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahristani became Deputy Prime Minister for Energy. The former Deputy Prime Minister Rafi al-Issawi became Finance Minister. Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari will continue in his post. Saleh al-Mutlaq was also controversially appointed a Deputy Prime Minister after a ban on him taking part in politics as a former Baathist. Thirteen more ministerial posts had acting ministers as al-Maliki said "The formation of national unity government in Iraq is a difficult and hard task because we need to find place in the government for all those who participated and won in the elections."
The Council of Representatives of Iraq:
Is the main elected body of representatives in Iraq. It is currently composed of 325 seats and meets in Baghdad inside the International Zone (Green Zone). It is governed by bylaws that can be found here: http://www.pogar.org/publications/ot...raq-cr-06e.pdf
Speaker of the Council of Representatives:
Present Speaker: Usama al-Nujayfi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usama_al-Nujayfi
The Iraqi National Congress:
Is an umbrella Iraqi opposition group led by Ahmed Chalabi. It was formed with the aid and direction of the United States government following the Gulf War, for the purpose of fomenting the overthrow of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein.
Iraqi National Congress: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nationa...ress_Coalition
Present INC Leader: Ahmed Chalabi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahmed_Chalabi
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