Economist d. Mohammed Ali Zaini: Iraqi economy backward supervised by ignorant mostly corrupt officials

Sadiq al-Taie

MARCH 26, 2016

Talk about the Iraqi economy Multiple him Bzwayah flavor, especially when provided by an economist Aref in all its details, and has a scientific and practical experience in a lot of files, and this is what was in dialogue with Dr. Mohammed Ali Zaini, he completed his secondary education with distinction in Iraq, what his family to get a mission to study electrical engineering at the University of Birmingham where he graduated in 1962, then earned a bachelor's degree in law from the University of Mustansiriya in Baghdad in 1973 and completed his postgraduate studies at the University of Colorado in the United States obtained a master's degree in economics of oil in 1977 and then a doctorate in economics of oil at the same university in 1980.

He returned to work in the Iraqi Ministry of Oil, and like Iraq in 1982 in one of the OPEC conference in Vienna, and refused to go back after the Conference to Iraq to serve a dictatorial regime. Then he left with his family to the United States of America, the US and worked in the oil industry during the years 1983 1998. resigned from his job at Antwell Oil Company (Intoil) in 1992, where he was executive vice president of the company, but he remained independent of her adviser. That was the resignation of full-time to writing his encyclopedic book is important «the Iraqi economy. Past, present and future options» The book was completed and published the first edition of it in the summer of 1995. Then the revised edition was issued in 2003 and overpriced, 2009 and 2010.

Moved to the United Kingdom, to work during the years 1999 2010 at the Center for Global Energy Studies as an expert economist and analyst of energy policy, and was responsible, within the terms of reference at the center, all the affairs of the political economy of the countries of the Middle East, especially the Gulf countries, and the participants in the preparation of periodic oil, which issues reports from the center, an analyst in the global oil and gas, energy and economy affairs, as he prepares studies as required by the need for the center.

It was invited by the Council of the reconstruction and development of Iraq (IRDC) in January 2003 to join the team to work after the fall of the regime. Work with the US team as an adviser to the Iraqi Ministry of Oil for only four months (May August 2003), spent mostly in participation numbers, the reconstruction of the infrastructure of the oil industry in Iraq plan, he resigned from his job as a result of dissatisfaction with the march of the work of the US team and the corruption of contracting with companies, and as a result of disappointment very disappointed the impact of serious errors committed by the occupation forces and the deterioration of security and service and living situation in Iraq, and then returned to London to resume his work at the Center for global energy Studies.

Was nominated for the Iraqi parliament from the province of Baghdad during the elections in 2014 but the Authority officials sectarians put various obstacles in front of him to prevent him from running, including being accused of being prisoners previously convicted of a crime «4 terrorism»), a paragraph within five articles in the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2005 and issued Iraqi national Assembly) and therefore deprived of the nomination. Thus Ochgloh defend himself rather than use the time in the election campaign. But with all those immoral means won about a thousand voice (more than earned it the current Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi). However, the laws and the means used to sort the winners separated on their size, they are usually the winners.

Can we give a quick overview describes the case of the Iraqi economy and its changes since the establishment of the national state so far to build on the important study by «the Iraqi economy»?

• Iraqi economy began farming, as expected from Mesopotamia, and continued well after the establishment of the national state. But the dominance of the agricultural sector took subside when the extraction and export of crude oil industry is gradually gaining importance. Iraq was self-sufficient in agricultural production until the late fifties of the last century, but it imported 15 percent of its food needs during the sixties also imported 33 percent of its food needs during the seventies, and this number has increased to about 70% during the eighties and then to over ninety% after the occupation in 2003 . began the extractive industries sector, represented by the extraction of crude oil, the gradual acquisition of importance even has his complete domination of the Iraqi economy in the late fifties. The manufacturing sector began a very weak base, and remained so until the development efforts planned and taking notice of the government to invest in the manufacturing sector after the increase in oil resources, These efforts included the establishment of refineries, oil refining, as well as the exploitation of natural gas in the chemical fertilizer industries and petrochemicals in addition to the production of liquid gases to exploit locally .

The oil industry is simple and relies mostly on craft industries, local and special skills, traditional manufacturing industries Ksnaat textile, leather, food, tobacco and construction materials. The private sector has dominated the industry until the year 1964 it was nationalized all private sector industries, which increased its capital to 70 thousand dinars. That the nationalization of the private sector, restrictive laws and decisions that were accompanied by significant adverse produced returns on the Iraqi economy, such as those emerged from the failed government efforts in the implementation of agrarian reform. The government is directed towards the nationalization of private industries and restrict their activities prompted a lot of head and many good managers and successful entrepreneurs private money to escape out of Iraq. The manufacturing sector also have been inefficient in light of the public sector «any government control» his pillow military industries during the Iran-Iraq war, and was destroyed and deflation as a result of the war that followed the invasion of Kuwait Economic bitter siege, and finally disappearing under occupation and brought it from corruption.

How do you see the role of planning in the promotion of the economic sector, and I hope to shed light on the reconstruction of the Iraqi experience in the era of the fifties?

• we can say that the conscious sound planning is the locomotive that pulls behind projects of various kinds, on the road to the advancement of the country, not only in terms of economic growth, but in terms of all the other aspects necessary to create a civil society and well-being. So that a successful economy can play the role of the fuel that drives the locomotive, but the locomotive (ie conscious proper planning) is leading to the ultimate goal, but a human evolution. On this question, I do now have search for reasons for the decline of Arab Islamic civilization and then extinguished its flame to cover the Arabs then in a deep slumber, while twisting and Europe and then rise from Nomtha to pass Pinhzh then enlighten, and revolutionized scientific and industrial to dominate the world, and then take over this American sovereignty (which is an extension of Europe). And looking in this book about the means by which to promote the Arab nation anew to catch up to the developed world. It will be the title of the book «sleep of Europe, Arabs and lethargy: Man is the wealth». I am, as I apologize for this digression, pulled out of the final chapter excerpt shows the quality of life for communities Orovernma Arab world. In view of the nineties the World Bank said in its annual report on global development for the year 1991 to make life better for the people is the fundamental purpose of development and says: «The challenge posed by the development, in the broadest sense, is to improve the quality of life. The quality of the best, especially in the poor countries of the world of life calls for higher income, but include much more than that, they include as ends in themselves on top of the health and nutrition levels, less poverty, cleaner environment, equal greater opportunities, individual freedoms wider, and the life cultural richest. » And to return to the question, it was the Iraqi Reconstruction Council in the era of the fifties successful in his work has been devoted to him the best talent, as he uses discreet international expertise whenever the need arise.

How do you see the role of oil positively and negatively on the form and the performance of Iraq's economic institutions?

• When the modern Iraqi state was formed in the prime of the second decade of the last century, Iraq was a poor and backward country in all respects. Perhaps the Iraqi economy will take the course of the last nor the discovery of oil in its territory. So that the agricultural sector was relatively still potent in terms of production, and the large agricultural Alaqtaat Sttdzo into small properties over time even if land reform did not happen, as after the revolution of July 14, 1958. Event In terms of the industry has been relatively successful Iraqi industry has developed under the leadership of the private sector and was It will grow and evolve for the better not for the nationalization in 1964.

In the absence of oil to the development of the Iraqi economy probably evolved as the Asian tigers. But economic development needs to wise leadership and political stability. If the wise leadership under the monarchy as far as the economy, it was not wise when it comes to politics. The repressive privilege did not mean raising «gradually» generation enjoys political rights. Thus the explosion occurred and was followed by a massive and continuing political chaos, which Aatacht successive governments on the proceeds of oil, it did not allow the ongoing political conflict Bajtrah prudent economic policy, it did not think it was originally. Then came the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein, along with wars and destruction, and therefore the occupation that handing over control of Iraq to a group of corrupt Vdvawa him to the brink.

So, what are the disadvantages of a rentier economy, which has lived in the shadow of Iraq since the nationalization of oil in 1972 and so far?

• rent, regardless of the academic definition, is entered is pooped him but largesse of nature. The rentier government are the government, which subsist mainly on the country's income from rents, meaning that the rent is almost the only way to fund the annual budget and the best example of the Government of the rentier is the Iraqi government at the present time. The means of financing the government budget in any country a substantial impact on the political, economic and social reality. The effects that are generated from the financing of the budget under the tax economy differ greatly from those that are generated under the rentier economy, and these differences can be summarized as follows: the government is making in light of tax economy strenuous efforts in order to obtain the necessary funds to finance its budget. This is usually done by imposing various taxes levied under the law. Because the tax increases the growth of the country's economy and the expansion of its activity, we find that the government is a major interest in the expansion of the motive for taxes from individuals and companies in economic activity. Therefore, we believe that the Government welcomes Thus, of course, encourage the establishment of new businesses or new projects, and have government departments concerned to cooperate with the new entrepreneurs to facilitate and speed up the establishment. The dynamics of these relations and mutual effects require the expansion of the economic base horizontally and vertically, on an ongoing basis, not only to increase the earned tax amounts in parallel with sustainable economic expansion, but for the labor market to expand and also create new opportunities for the operation commensurate with the continued increase in the volume of employment, and the resulting of continued population growth. With the addition of new business opportunities with a rewardingly income, increase taxes paid to the government. So on the one hand, and on the other hand, the government is responsible for creating opportunities for the operation of the citizens, and to bear that responsibility and done a good face have led their duty towards the taxpayer.

On the contrary, we find that the government in an economy that yield is not concerned so much vitality of economic activity and create a state of sustained economic growth in order to broaden the tax base and the consequent increase in earned taxes, because the government is not based on taxes to finance its budget. Vemoard rents flowed regularly government treasury to finance, there is no need permission to impose taxes on the people. For this, we find that the government here tend to be lax and lazy and do not assume their responsibilities in the revitalization of the economy and development of the exploitation of natural vitality of the private sector, nor is it the other hand, is serious about creating a rewarding job opportunities for citizens, as long as possible Tkdeshm in the government apparatus bloated constantly, the traditional place of unemployment disguised or Dkhhm year Baktalla failed and incompetent, failing to increasingly competitive and the weakness of its products increase the cost of production, and this is what is happening in Iraq now.

after a scientific description of the economy of rent, how can we do sustainable development projects to stand against the rentier economy deteriorating?

• The only way to move away from a rentier economy and get rid of the disadvantages is to invest in projects set by the wise plans commensurate with the nature of the country as outlined in the answer to the previous question, it is worth mentioning here that the investment is not limited to only the physical face, for example, such as the establishment lab, but there is a human investment , but it is probably the most important. Nowhere is this investment in education, public health, environmental conservation and improvement, as well as invest in and empower women, they play a pivotal role missing varying degrees in all the Arab world. It is that it bears the greatest burden in the upbringing of new generations. So that the children need better health and education have been studies in various developing countries have shown that mothers spend the bulk of the income that is under their control for the benefit of their children than fathers do. Add to this that women, because of permanent Tmasha with children, are carrying values ​​to a new generation.

describe how the Iraqi economy since the change in 2003 and until now?

• clearly and directly and without embellishment: it is an underdeveloped economy run by corrupt officials, mostly ignorant.

and how he sees the economic expert, such as d. Mohammed Ali Zaini, the reality of corruption in Iraq today?

• I've never seen anything like him in the decadence only in Somalia and some other underdeveloped countries. And bear witness to what I say many public sources probably comes in the forefront of the annual calendar of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which is based Pthouderh Transparency International. For when you are looking at this table for Iraq, an ancient country, but I do not find the company of Somalia, Sudan, Libya and Afghanistan.

We agree that what Link Iraqi case of deterioration poses an unprecedented threat, what should work and what are the options available to pull Iraq back from the abysmal gap that signed them?

• First, the abolition of quotas in the government and the removal of the current political blocs, as all of them had they continued corruption. Then the inauguration of technocrats known for their integrity and national competence to manage the helm for about 3 years 4 through 12 to 15 ministries only. Parliament solving and clean the judiciary of corrupt. And the prosecution of all suspects to exercise corruption from within and outside the government. And sanction those convicted legally recover money stolen them, and supervise the issuance of a new national constitution. And work to rebuild the legislative, executive and judicial authorities, including the dictates of the Constitution, in addition to rebuilding the Iraqi army career under a new law to conscription.

What about investment in Iraq? And how can we develop and Nsttmrh for the advancement of the Iraqi reality?

• Do not happening in Iraq, any investment in the conventional sense. Investment The section of the annual government budget usually stolen by the political blocs. Therefore, we find Iraq a barren land devoid of any new building, a school or a hospital or laboratory for the production of a commodity. If there is a new building, it exists to build a liar, most likely, and soon crumble and disappear. So if we want to activate the annual investment budget should be, then, to eliminate corruption from the roots and this in turn requires the disposal of the political blocs that they share with each other by virtue of Iraq. The private investment, Iraqi or foreigner, is absent due to the lack of an enabling environment provides. And conditions conducive environment, very briefly, requires the provision of: stability, security, political, legal framework to regulate production, distribution and securing freedom of competition in the market, and an independent judiciary to resolve commercial disputes issues and define private property rights and ensure complete her protection, and macroeconomic stability (Macroaakonomi) including It includes controlling hyperinflation, and extensive financial markets through the development and modernization of local banks and openness to foreign banks and financial Albiotat, and easy to start a new business without bogging bureaucracy and red tape. This favorable environment, if available, Iraq has become a magnet for heads of Arab and foreign funds and we have seen a jump in real economic growth.

I ran in the previous parliamentary elections for Democratic Movement, was in Djapetkm plans for economic advancement in Iraq?

• mainstream did not offer a detailed plan to follow in order to economic advancement in Iraq at the time, but his platform contains several axes, the economic hub and one of them. This axis and contained 12 points, each one of which turned out briefly what is needed to treat economically. In the case of my candidacy for the forthcoming parliamentary elections, Chapter XX of the new book will be titled «reconstruction» basic material to plan the advancement of the Iraqi economy.

Sadiq al-Taie