Four most serious issues faced by Iraq in 2015


Thursday, December 31 0.2015

Four key issues in the Iraqi arena over the 12 months of 2015, in the forefront of the war against "Daash" organization, who finished third of the country, then the deterioration of the global oil prices, which sent a painful blow to the resources of the country, then the measures, dubbed the reforms, which collided to oppose the corrupt and the beneficiaries of senior politicians, as well as aggravation of displaced people whose number exceeded 3.5 million citizen crisis.

The general who deposited Iraq these days full of serious events and important and critical developments that will have a significant impact on shaping the future of this country and confront the political, security and economic challenges faced by since Years.


Iraq in lost income in 2015, which is in the face of the most serious challenge seen since the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), where the occupied organization (Daash) 30 percent of the area of Iraq in the western and northern regions cemented its presence in the country to occupy the second city of Mosul, the largest city in Iraq after Baghdad on the tenth of June 2014 and puts the country in front of a real risk embodied in the collapse of the Iraqi army and the flight of senior leaders of the fronts of confrontation with the organization and floundering in the general commander of the armed forces, Prime Minister decisions then Nuri al-Maliki.

This situation has been forced to mobilize all the potential of the country's physical and human and armament and political in the face of a fateful battle rang danger gates of the capital Baghdad, but the weakness of those possibilities and its inability to real confrontation in front of dilation organization to other provinces, has expropriated represented by Iran and the United States outside forces Iraqi territory with official approval.
While Iran exploited the fragile to insert security situation experts and advisers at the head of militias popular crowd, which constitute the advisory opinion of top Shi'ite cleric Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, for the defense of Iraq's land and people and sanctities and exploited by Iran to also pay these militias backed by her armed and trained to impose its influence on the internal situation and to become a sectarian state within the Iraqi state in exploitation of the advisory opinion, which was to invite national all Iraqis to prepare to defend their homeland, leading to aggressive sectarian practices of liberation Sunni areas of control (Daash) deepened sectarian rift that caused Iraq's calamities in recent years.

These developments brought about internal concerns of expansion reprisals sectarianism and fear of foreign domination Iranian unrivaled in Iraq, which led to the prevention of the popular crowd to participate in the liberation of Ramadi, capital of western Anbar province, the Sunni city then send US special force to support Iraqi forces, which when these forces were able to get the job done and the expulsion of regulation the city fully .. but it was rejected by the Iraqi forces is the American entry on the line of the battles and the replacement of the Iranian presence in another, but he was an American this time, as much as if Iraq is to stay under the wills of external agendas intersect with the interests of Iraq's present and future strategy.


And entered Iraq in 2015 have oil prices tumbled main source of national income, which represents about 90 percent of the national imports general budget, which form a real challenge to the country's economy which is already suffering from the high costs of the war against terrorism.
Iraq has resources fell by 60 percent in late The current recognition of Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, who warned a few days ago of an impasse facing his country as a result of the current financial crisis, caused by the drop in oil prices and the war against Daash and put the country in a real financial risk.

He said that the significantly lower oil prices and the entry of the country in a war that drains big money of the budget the government has put in financial trouble, and the search for resources to meet their requirements. He said that Iraqi oil exported close to 59 trillion dinars value ($ 55 billion), and there is the cost of production'd have the amount of 45 Trliuna ($ 42 billion), and there is an accumulated debt Valmtbaka be 40 Trliuna ($ 37 billion) and the salaries of state employees and retirees need to 50 Trliuna (48 billion dollars) .. and he asked, "How is spending on the war, health, education, agriculture and services, the poor and others?".

The deepening of the country's financial crisis this cash reserve for Iraq reduced from 88 billion to 40 billion, which means a decrease of national currency cover , where financial sources indicate that Iraq's imports of oil sales currently stands at 120 million dollars a day and auction currency where the central bank sold $ 200 million a day what constitutes a real disaster because there are 80 million withdrawn from the Central Bank reserves daily, which forced Iraq to put his money under the tutelage of the International Monetary Fund, which declared that Iraq's reserves of hard currency will not be enough for him for more than nine months, putting the country on the doors of bankruptcy.

This led to heavy financial pressure as any large loan from the IMF for Iraq will come the conditions imposed on the government cut support energy, which include fuels and fuels like gasoline and other prices, and the reform of state-owned enterprises, the steps may be difficult at the political level and provoke popular protests will have a serious impact on the stability, and the fate of the government-Abadi.

Under Iraq's agreement with the IMF to impose trusteeship on Iraq financial and economic policies for the next year in 2016, as this will push Iraq to issue bonds worth $ 6 billion next year to meet budget deficit of $ 23 billion, five of which will be put up in the local market and the rest in the international market.

Displaced people and the reconstruction of the liberated areas

As Iraq began in 2015 and more than two million displaced people have abandoned their cities because of the control of the organization Daash them and as a result of military confrontations between armed men and Iraqi forces quickly increasing their number to arrive at the end of the year to three and a half million displaced people fled from their homes in search of security .

current week, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Iraq has expressed regret for increasing these numbers recently due to military operations in Anbar and Kirkuk and other areas of the country, noting that the Humanitarian Country Team of the United Nations currently is planning the structure of humanitarian response to contain the millions of those displaced.

She explained that the Iraqi capital Baghdad hosted the largest number of displaced people, including nearly 18% of them or (577 230 individuals), followed by Anbar province, 18% (570 768 individuals) and Dahuk 13% (409 170) and the province of Kirkuk, 12% (381 156), Erbil, 10% (329 472) and Nineveh 7% (220 398 ) and the province of Sulaymaniyah 5% (162 678). She said that by (44% or 1.39419 million individuals) are the majority of the displaced people who are descended from Anbar province west of the country and by (33% or 1.06347 million individuals) from the northern province of Nineveh, which controls "Daash" on a wide respective areas.

The head of the International Organization for Migration in Iraq Thomas Luther Weiss "We feel sorry for the continuity of the newly displaced in the midst of armed conflict, newly Valenazhon and displaced people in the long term and returning all of whom need special assistance .. The International Organization for Migration will continue cooperation with the Humanitarian Country Team of the United Nations and its humanitarian partners and government authorities and the donor community to provide assistance of displaced Iraqis across the country in this difficult situation.

"As a result of these difficult conditions experienced by the displaced, the Government Council recently decided to convert all the budgets of the development of the region and the provinces and the ration card in the provinces occupied by the Daash to displaced people, where will pay these allocations to them on monthly salaries form ranging from 300 to 400 thousand dinars (about $ 350) for each displaced family with the allocation of funds for the reconstruction of the provinces devastated by Daash.

The issue of the reconstruction of Iraqi cities and towns destroyed by the fighting, which entered its second year, between security forces and militants Daash, a serious challenge facing the government Abadi, which went appeals to the international community to contribute to the reconstruction of these areas has been. Some countries have already responded to this by donations ranged between one million and three million dollars each, but the challenge is bigger than offered so far under the financial crisis currently experienced by Iraq, which means that the reconstruction will take these operations required for years to complete.


During the year 2015, formed what dubbed Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi (reforms), which began in the ninth of August (last August), another challenge as a result of pressures put on to prevent him from continuing the politicians and the people affected, which disrupted and angering citizens who had to exit the demonstrations of protest Asbuabh express the disappointment of the lack of seriousness of those reforms and demanding real decisions facing corruption and prosecute looters of public money.

Therefore those reforms that optimism by citizens at the beginning of an administrative and austerity measures did not affect the essence of the scourge of corruption plaguing remained State institutions, and are not held accountable by former Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, who ruled the country for eight years, and disappeared during which more than two hundred billion dollars was announced for parliamentary action to track down those responsible for it, but it seems that the pressures and political consensus have prevented continue to search and register the case against the unknown!

Since direct reforms has been saved by a coalition of state law, led by al-Maliki, Abadi and is considered one of its leaders, and the collection of signatures for the withdrawal of the authorization granted by parliament to head the government to implement these reforms under the pretext of lack of usefulness, but observers pointed out that these objections were the result of damage to the interests of the deputies in the coalition it.
It was House of Representatives ratified unanimously by deputies in the atheist th of August (last August) on the first package of government reforms launched by al-Abadi then also voted on the same day on the parliamentary reforms launched by the President of the Council, Salim al package, but real reform has been done on the ground so far .

The Abadi and within the reforms launched by the packages had canceled the positions of the three Vice-President, the Vice-Presidents of the three government also exempted 123 Deputy Minister and Director-General from office were referred to retirement .. and also decided to reduce the number of cabinet posts to 22 instead of 33 across Cancel three positions of deputy prime ministers and four ministries and merge eight ministries and make-four only. He also cut the salaries of senior officials and the abolition of the majority of the elements of Hamayatem and return them to the security forces.

And brought these steps after weeks of protests swept Iraq, during which protesters demanded better services, especially water and electricity and the fight against corruption and to hold negligent, backed by top Shi'ite cleric Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, who Certified Ahmed Safi stressed that reform need popular basic and fundamental for the future of the country, so it is important to continue to be real and move it without hesitation or relax.

But Abadi, who could not escalate the reform processes real measures as a result of the general country conditions and the pressure affected them, what Evto warns (that some are trying to thwart everything in the country and take advantage of crises and challenges faced by the country and the citizen's demands unrealistic political exploitation), he said in a speech this week.

He acknowledged the Prime Minister that (Iraq is going through many challenges, where there are terrorist gangs represented Bdaash kill rejects diversity and are trying to cancel the other, and another challenge is to lower oil prices, a serious condition, in addition to the fight against corruption and expose corrupt) .. but it could be argued that these challenges are still waiting for decisive action by him seems to be unable yet to be taken.