Simple unified State option State vehicle allowance
Simple unified State option State vehicle allowance
The Iraqi political system required the transformation of governance in Khalid Iraq after the fundamental change that resulted from the United States to topple Saddam Hussein in 2003, the federal system of Government (State vehicle), rather than a central system (simple standard State). That was a shift in the political system built on the considerable effort made by the Kurdish political forces represented by the two main parties; the Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union. Iraqi political forces were anti-Saddam met in London in 2002, and has responded to the desire in the federal system in the event of the fall of Saddam. The Kurdish movements contributed to continued after 2003 for us support in this regard, the Americans pressed the rest of the Iraqi political forces — all contributed to the adoption of the new Iraqi Constitution of 2005, who chose a federal system in Iraq while maintaining the Kurdish region in the North of the country by all institutions created since 1991.
And federal system of Government, which is one of the methods created by dismantling simple and converted to State vehicle, responds to the diversity of races-national, religious or linguistic-to country, mitigating the influence of the high central State, granting the country various administrative and political freedom-development bodies of the legislative, Executive and judicial local territory-suit the diversity of local specificities while ensuring the cohesion of the country as a single political unit by limiting the terms of the basic status of international governance that represents all regions of the country, in international forums.
Different federal States in terms of expansion in granting constitutional competencies to the territories under the administration of the State, or in squeeze The terms of reference. In those States that had established the federal system on the basis of the compilation of a number of States that were fully independent, the new States of the Federation sought to gain more constitutional rights at the expense of the Centre, in an attempt to maintain a lot of independence. In the case of States which had established a Federal Union based on the dismantling of the unified State to group counties, the Center is moving in the direction of reducing the competences of the regions, in an attempt to preserve the country from disintegration. In both cases we find that politicians who want to achieve a future separation support granting the territories more competences, as a step to facilitate independence once helped circumstances, politicians supported the idea of maintaining the cohesion of the country they need to advocate Conservative Union Center most constitutional competences.
Not in Iraq until now, after more than 10 years to establish a federal system of Government, only one region is a Kurdish region in the North of the country, established on the basis of nationality as a result of the numerical superiority of the ethnic Kurds in the country's provinces of Dohuk, Northern Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, and spread to several other Kurds in many other Iraqi provinces, while in the rest of the country, did not call for the creation of federal regions widely, not only by the politicians and not by the masses. And remember, timid calls for establishment of the Middle Euphrates region and advocated by Abdul Aziz Al-Hakim, and apparently not verifiable result distribution and dispersion of audience the Islamic Council, which was led by Hakim, until his death, a number of provinces in the Middle Euphrates region and beyond, does not achieve the majority required for the referendum to form regions. Either other invitations to establish a territory in Basra or establish territory «sunny» in the Western prefectures, they are invitations to reveal profit utilitarian dimension of a number of provincial politicians.
Then, and here we are before the County orphans in the country recognizes the federal rule, supposedly established on the base of the country's need for this system as a result of the diversity of the specificities of the population; national, religious and linguistic rights. This territory is only 17% of the total population at best (for has been approved by the Organization Committee of the Constitution, where the parties agreed on remaining stationary until the census is coming), and it seems that this came through expense estimate for the population of the three northern governorates, Kurdish majority, plus Kirkuk «oil» outside the territory, as well as calculate mixed areas based on the borders of the northern governorates which arose by the Kurdish region. And the illustration is arguably turning Iraq from a unitary State to a State vehicle, came to meet the political demands of the nationalist parties represent less than a fifth of Iraq's population, if we assume that the party represents the aspirations of the population and is not part of it.
The important question here is: where is the Justice of the Iraqi Constitution as the Supreme Law of the State, when it responds to the desire of the fraction of the population, while the legal and political upheaval is reflected on the rest of the country, because some politicians exploit the potential formation of territories for fomenting chaos in areas dominated by them and demand regionalization of provinces driven by personal victory ambitions; financial or political. To change the political system of unified Iraqi to Federation, is supposed to be based on real need community building requires the majority of the country's population, but it doesn't look like there is an urgent need for such a move which contributed to its adoption – in addition to the Kurdish parties and strong international pressure--Iraqi sectarian parties, apparently they made a mistake by weighted strategic interests outweighed the interests of Kurdish parties across the country.
And competences reflected legislative, Executive and judicial powers imposed by the federal system between the Centre and the region – reflected on what's going on in the Kurdish region of Iraq from chaos of legislative and Executive, the influential parties in the administration of the territory, the holding of an international treaty with Turkey to export oil maintenance revenues, without coordination with the Central Government, since international treaties of this type established by the Constitution in the federal jurisdiction. As well as legal and political chaos emerged-in one of its forms-Kurdish by the Shura Council to support President's survival in Office, even after the end of his constitutional two terms and add two more Bab just the political consensus.
Perhaps the key solution to clues of the Iraqi political system lie in trying to grope this constitutional solution, a return to a simple unified State State allowance, which existed since the establishment of the modern Iraqi State in 1921 until the fall of Saddam in 2003, with the need to adopt a system of administrative decentralization which gives communities with cultural, administrative freedom in their areas. At the same time this system preserves the country's unity against attempts by separatist parties friable by taking advantage of the features of a federal system, which has contributed so far-with the help of purely political factors, illegal-to weaken the cohesion of the country sustains unity.
The unified State including those that pursue administrative decentralization, based on the hardware unit, the legislative, Executive and judicial branches of the whole country, but in the system of administrative decentralization to local bodies election or his reformer in cities with privacy, take some competences of the administrative function exercised by the central authority, local bodies should remain subject to censorship or supervision led by the central authority can call (guardianship). To alleviate the fears of different cultural races, basic devices could include State officials selected from all provinces. It remains the standard of Justice and respect for human rights and the enforcement of the will of goodness, is the sole distinction between political system and other practices.
The overlap of different nationalities and religions on Earth, making it difficult to establish a federal political system, in northern Iraq, where the only national affiliations are distributed between Turkmen and Kurdish and Neo-Assyrian, and diverse religious affiliations between Islam and Christianity and yezidism, let alone other regions called «disputed» region annexation attempts to claim krditha, such as Nineveh plain and Sinjar and Kirkuk, Khanaqin and pins, are cities where in addition to Arabs and Kurds; and filet wekakaeh, trying to calm the fears of those territory by alluding to the adoption Decentralized administrative system satisfies privacy. Perhaps say the return of the whole country to administrative decentralization as an application of the State, out of State vehicle Federal impasse that created more problems than it created solutions-perhaps this is the best and most appropriate for a country like Iraq, if we add to the emergency conditions resulting from fragmentation and political chaos, which led to the weakening of all parties, and allowed for extremist groups to wreak havoc, turning the country into an arena for settling accounts.
It is important to note that the form and content of the political system as not representing the desired conclusion leading to safety, if you stand behind the political will truly reflect the content of the existing political system. In simple standard States countries practice democracy as most of Western Europe, while others are exercising dictatorship or the ruling party, as is evident in most Arabic countries and others. And the same thing could apply to States that take federal system of Government, the United States, Canada and Switzerland, but is not limited to ancient democracies countries pursuing federal rule, while Sudan another State take the same regime, but it is no more than a military dictatorship came to power through a military coup, Sudan ended up turned into two. Still emerging South Sudan suffers political storms, which can be traced back to geo-political factors related to the lack of capacity of some communities to create and manage an independent State. We, too, in the Iraqi political system is a perfect example of chaos application reflecting-as pointed out-political will miss her already hard to find political solutions.