Educational: Sanctions/Resolutions -Iraq
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  1. #1
    RED LILY
    Guest

    Lightbulb Educational: Sanctions/Resolutions -Iraq



    Sanctions against Iraq

    From Wikipedia( View original Wikipedia Article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanctions_against_Iraq Last modified on 2 December 2012, at 22:08


    The sanctions against Iraq were a near-total financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council on the nation of Iraq. They began August 6, 1990, four days after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, stayed largely in force until May 2003 (after Saddam Hussein's being forced from power),[1] and certain portions including reparations to Kuwait persisting later and through the present.[2][3]

    The original stated purposes of the sanctions were to compel Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, to pay reparations, and to disclose and eliminate any weapons of mass destruction.

    Initially the UN Security Council imposed stringent economic sanctions on Iraq by adopting and enforcing United Nations Security Council Resolution 661.[4] After the end of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, those sanctions were extended and elaborated on, including linkage to removal of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), by Resolution 687.[5][6] The sanctions banned all trade and financial resources except for medicine and "in humanitarian circumstances" foodstuffs, whose import into Iraq was tightly regulated.[4]

    �� Iraq now has control of their financial resources.. this part has been resolved.. we will get to this later on in the study.

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 661


    From Wikipedia( View original Wikipedia Article ) Last modified on 3 August 2012 at 19:19

    In United Nations Security Council resolution 661, adopted on 6 August 1990, reaffirming Resolution 660 (1990) and noting Iraq's refusal to comply with it and Kuwait's right of self-defence, the Council took steps to implement international sanctions on Iraq under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. This was the second resolution by the Security Council over the invasion of Kuwait.

    The Council therefore decided that states should prevent:

    (a) the import of all products and commodities originating in Iraq or Kuwait;

    (b) any activities by their nationals or in their territories that would promote the export of products originating in Iraq or Kuwait, as well as the transfer of funds to either country for the purposes of such activities;

    (c) the sale of weapons or other military equipment to Iraq and Kuwait, excluding humanitarian aid;

    (d) the availability of funds or other financial or economic resources to either country, or to any commercial, industrial or public utility operating within them, except for medical or humanitarian purposes.

    ----

    After the end of the Gulf War and the Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, the sanctions were linked to removal of weapons of mass destruction by Resolution 687 (1991). The effects of government policy and the sanctions regime led to hyperinflation, widespread poverty and malnutrition.[1][2]

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._661?qsrc=3044

    United Nations Security Council Resolution 687

    From Wikipedia( View original Wikipedia Article ) Last modified on 7 August 2012 at 01:28

    United Nations Security Council resolution 687, adopted on 3 April 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677, 678 (all 1990) and 686 (1991), the Council set the terms, in a comprehensive resolution, with which Iraq was to comply after losing the Gulf War.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._687?qsrc=3044


    660 - United Nations Security Council resolution 660, adopted on 2 August 1990, after noting its alarm of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Council condemned the invasion and demanded Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally to positions as they were on 1 August 1990.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._660?qsrc=3044


    662 - United Nations Security Council resolution 662, adopted unanimously on 9 August 1990, recalling resolutions 660 (1990) and 661 (1990), the Council decided that the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq under any form was illegal.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._662?qsrc=3044

    664 - United Nations Security Council resolution 664, adopted unanimously on 18 August 1990, reaffirming resolutions 660 (1990), 661 (1990) and 662 (1990), the Council recalled Iraq's obligations under international law and acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, demanded that Iraq permit and facilitate the departure of nationals from third countries from within Iraq and Kuwait, calling for consular and diplomatic access to the third state nationals.

    The Council went on to demand that Iraq take no action that would jeopardise the safety of the nationals, reaffirming that the annexation of Kuwait is illegal, therefore demanding that Iraq rescind its orders to close consular and diplomatic missions in Kuwait and the removal of diplomatic immunity of their personnel. Thousands of foreigners were in Iraq and Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion,[1] and the Council denounced Iraq's decision to use foreign nationals as "human shields" at strategic sites.[2]

    Resolution 664 finally requested the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar to report on the compliance with the current resolution as soon as possible.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._664?qsrc=3044

    665 - United Nations Security Council resolution 665, adopted on 25 August 1990, after demanding the full and immediate implementation of resolutions 660, 661, 662 and 664, the Council authorised a naval blockade to enforce the embargo against Iraq, in the aftermath of its invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990.

    On 6 August 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the Security Council adopted Resolution 661 (1990) which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo, excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity ---

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._665?qsrc=3044

    666 - United Nations Security Council Resolution 666, adopted on September 13, 1990, after recalling resolutions 661 (1990) and 664 (1990) which discussed the humanitarian situation in Iraq and Kuwait and the detention of nationals from foreign countries, the Council decided to ask the Security Council Committee to determine if humanitarian needs have arisen and to keep the situation under review. At the same time, it expected Iraq to comply with its obligations under international law, including the Fourth Geneva Convention, relating to the safety and detainment of third-state nationals in Iraq and occupied Kuwait.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._666?qsrc=3044


    667 - United Nations Security Council resolution 667, adopted unanimously on 16 September 1990, after recalling resolutions 660 (1990), 661 (1990), 664 (1990), 665 (1990) and 666 (1990), the Council expressed its outrage and condemned "aggressive acts" by Iraq against diplomatic missions and personnel in occupied Kuwait, including the abduction of some, in violation of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Consular Relations.

    Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council demanded the immediate release of foreign nationals as well as all nationals mentioned in Resolution 664

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._667?qsrc=3044


    669 - United Nations Security Council resolution 669, adopted unanimously on 24 September 1990, after recalling Resolution 661 (1990) and Article 50 of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council was conscious of the increasing number of requests for assistance have been received under Article 50, relating to international sanctions against Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._669?qsrc=3044

    International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.

    There are several types of sanctions.

    >Diplomatic sanctions - the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies.

    >Economic sanctions - typically a ban on trade, possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments, or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine)

    >Military sanctions - military intervention

    >Sport sanctions - preventing one country's people and teams from competing in international events.

    >Economic sanctions are distinguished from trade sanctions, which are applied for purely economic reasons, and typically take the form of tariffs or similar measures, rather than bans on trade.


    TARIFFS!!! Still up in the air ~~~




    Study in progress. To be continued.....time for sleep nowwwww










    Last edited by RED LILY; 12-13-2012 at 06:22 AM.



  2. #2
    RED LILY
    Guest


    670 - United Nations Security Council resolution 670, adopted on 25 September 1990, after recalling resolutions 660 (1990), 661 (1990), 662 (1990), 664 (1990), 665 (1990), 666 (1990) and 667 (1990) on the topic of Iraq, the Council condemned the continued Iraqi occupation of Kuwait, the violence against Kuwaiti citizens and its defiance of Security Council resolutions. It also noted the expulsion of Iraqi diplomats from several countries. As a consequence, the Council decided to impose further sanctions on Iraq, relating to civil aviation.[1]

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._670?qsrc=3044


    674 - United Nations Security Council resolution 674, adopted on 29 October 1990, after recalling resolutions 660 (1990), 661 (1990), 662 (1990), 664 (1990), 665 (1990), 666 (1990), 667 (1990) and 670 (1990) on the topic of Iraq, the Council condemned the continuing situation in occupied Kuwait after the Iraqi invasion on 2 August 1990, reaffirming the goal of the international community of maintaining international peace and security.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._674?qsrc=3044

    667 - United Nations Security Council resolution 677, adopted unanimously on 28 November 1990, after recalling resolutions 660 (1990), 662 (1990) and 674 (1990), the Council condemned attempts by Iraq to alter the demographic information of Kuwait and the restrictions on the movement of its citizens.[1]

    Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council also condemned attempts by Iraq to destroy civil records maintained by the Government of Kuwait. Therefore, the resolution mandated the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar to take custody of a population register of Kuwait that has been certified by the "legitimate Government of Kuwait" and which covers the population register untli 1 August 1990. It also asked the Secretary-General and the Kuwaiti government to establish a set of rules and regulations governing access to the register.

    The resolution was adopted in anticipation of the disappearance of Kuwaitis or the influx of non-Kuwaitis as a result of Iraqi policy in the occupied country.[2]

    This still remains one of the OUTSTANDING issues...

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._667?qsrc=3044


    669 - United Nations Security Council resolution 669, adopted unanimously on 24 September 1990, after recalling Resolution 661 (1990) and Article 50 of Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council was conscious of the increasing number of requests for assistance have been received under Article 50, relating to international sanctions against Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait.

    Article 50 states that if the Security Council is enforcing sanctions against any state, whether it be a Member of the United Nations or not, a country that is confronted with economic problems as a result of the measures has the right to consult the Council to find a solution to the problem.[1] 21 states, including Jordan, which were experiencing adverse consequences of the sanctions, filed requests in this manner.[2]

    In this regard, the Council requested the Security Council Committee established in Resolution 661 (1990) to examine requests for assistance under Article 50. It reported back by asking Member States to support other states that had been affected by the sanctions on Iraq.[3]

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._669?qsrc=3044

    678 - United Nations Security Council resolution 678, adopted on 29 November 1990, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674 and 677 (all 1990), the Council noted that despite all the United Nations efforts, Iraq continued to defy the Security Council.

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._678?qsrc=3044

    686 - United Nations Security Council resolution 686, adopted on 2 March 1991, after reaffirming resolutions 660, 661, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 669, 670, 674, 677 and 678 (all 1990), the Council noted the suspension of military activities against Iraq and that all twelve resolutions continue to have full force and effect.

    The resolution went on to demand that Iraq implement these twelve resolutions, as well as rescind its actions regarding the annexation of Kuwait; accept liability under international law for any loss, damage or injury in Kuwait; release any Kuwaiti or foreign nationals alive or deceased; and return any property seized by Iraq.

    Resolution 686 also demanded that Iraq:

    (a) end hostile and provocative actions by its forces against all Member States, including missile attacks;

    (b) arrange for a ceasefire at the earliest possible time by designating military commanders to meet with its foreign counterparts;

    (c) arrange for the release and immediate access to all prisoners of war under the auspices of the International Committee of the Red Cross;

    (d) provide information identifying Iraqi mines, booby traps as well as any chemical and biological weapons in land or water.

    The Council also requested international organisations as well as agencies of the United Nations to co-operate with the Government of Kuwait in the reconstruction of their country, deciding that Iraq should inform the Secretary-General and Security Council when it has undertaken actions set out in the current resolution.

    Resolution 686 was passed by 11 votes to 1 against (Cuba) with three abstentions from China, India, and Yemen.

    Iraq later made concessions on 5 March relating the resolution, including the repeal of Iraqi laws and regulations in Kuwait.[1]
    See also

    http://www.ask.com/wiki/United_Natio..._686?qsrc=3044

    This still remains one of the OUTSTANDING issues...










  3. #3
    RED LILY
    Guest

    ~~



    REMOVAL OF FINANCIAL SANCTIONS:

    Official Journal of the European Union

    COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 88/2012

    of 1 February 2012

    amending Regulation (EC) No 1210/2003 concerning certain specific restrictions on economic
    and financial relations with Iraq


    THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION,

    Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

    Having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 1210/2003 of 7 July 2003 concerning certain specific restrictions on economic and financial relations with Iraq, (1) and in particular Article 11(b) thereof,

    On 2 June 2011, the Sanctions Committee of the United Nations Security Council decided to remove two natural persons from the list of persons or entities to whom the freezing of funds and economic resources should apply, with reference to paragraph 23(b) of Resolution 1483(2003) of the United Nations Security Council.

    Furthermore, on 6 December 2011 the Sanctions Committee decided to remove one natural person from this list.

    http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/...11:0012:EN:PDF


    TO BE CONTINUED~~~



    Financial Sanctions Notification

    Iraq


    Copies of relevant Releases, certain EU Regulations, UNSC Resolutions and UK legislation can be obtained from the Iraq regime page on the financial sanctions pages of the Treasury website:

    15.12.2010 UN Security Council Resolution 1956 (2010) (PDF 33KB)

    Decided, amongst other matters, that after 30 June 2011 the requirement in paragraph 20 of UNSCR 1483 (2003) that all proceeds from export sales of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas from Iraq be deposited into the Development Fund for Iraq shall no longer apply.

    21.12.2009 UN Security Council Resolution 1905 (2009) (PDF 34KB)

    Extended until 31 December 2010 arrangements in paragraph 20 of UNSCR 1483 (2003) for the depositing into the Development Fund for Iraq of proceeds from export sales of petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas and decided that the provisions of paragraph 22 of UNSCR 1483 (2003) should continue to apply until that date, including with respect to funds and financial assets and economic resources described in paragraph 23 of UNSCR 1483 (2009).

    24.11.2003 UN Security Council Resolution 1518 (2003) (PDF 21KB)

    Established a committee to continue to identify individuals and entities pursuant to UNSCR 1483 (2003).
    22.05.2003 UN Security Council Resolution 1483 (2003) (PDF 58KB)

    Lifted the sanctions imposed against the Republic of Iraq by UNSCR 661 (1990) and subsequent resolutions. An arms embargo remained in place.

    Will look into it further.. however, I believe the arms embargo have since been lifted as well...

    Introduced sanctions targeted at the funds of the previous Government of Iraq, its state bodies, corporations or agencies located outside of Iraq as of the date of the resolution, Saddam Hussein, other senior officials of the former Iraqi regime and their immediate families, including entities owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by them or persons acting on behalf of or at their direction.

    Established a Development Fund for Iraq to receive targeted funds as well as funds from the sale of oil. Funds would be disbursed at the discretion of the Coalition Provisional Authority in consultation with the Iraqi interim administration for humanitarian, reconstruction, disarmament and civilian administration purposes. The “Oil for Food” programme would be terminated six months from the date of the resolution.

    14.04.1995 UN Security Council Resolution 986 (1995) (PDF 17KB)

    Established the “Oil for Food” programme to provide for the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people. Again proposed allowing the partial resumption of Iraq’s oil exports to generate revenue to buy humanitarian supplies.

    02.10.1992 UN Security Council Resolution 778 (1992) (PDF 197KB)

    Instructed member states in which there were unencumbered funds of the Government of Iraq, or its state bodies, corporations or agencies that represented the proceeds of Iraqi oil exported prior to 6 August 1990, but paid for by or on behalf of the purchaser on or after 6 August 1990, to transfer those funds into the UN escrow account. These funds would be used to pay for compensation and humanitarian needs.

    15.08.1991 UN Security Council Resolution 706 (1991) (PDF 190KB)

    Proposed that Iraq be allowed to sell a limited amount of oil to pay for reparations and humanitarian needs in Iraq. An escrow account would be set up under the administration of the UN into which revenue from the sale of oil could be paid.

    02.03.1991 UN Security Council Resolution 686 (1991) (PDF 184KB)

    Removed sanctions against Kuwaiti funds and assets. Demanded that Iraq met the conditions of all previous resolutions, ceased hostile actions and returned all stolen Kuwaiti property.

    http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/unscr_686_020391.pdf

    06.08.1990 UN Security Council Resolution 661 (1990) (PDF 180KB)

    Imposed comprehensive sanctions on Iraq, including a freeze of the assets of Iraq and Kuwait. Established the 661 Committee to monitor the implementation of sanctions.

    02.08.1990 UN Security Council Resolution 660 (1990) (PDF 87KB)

    Stated that there had been a breach of international peace and security resulting from Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and called for Iraqi forces to withdraw immediately from Kuwait.

    You can find all PDF FILES noted above at this link: http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/fin_sanctions_iraq.htm





    Last edited by RED LILY; 12-13-2012 at 07:15 AM.

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