Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights
Congressional Research Service : http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS21968.pdf
Contents
Overview of the Post-Saddam Political Transition........................................ .................................. 1
Initial Transition and Construction of the Political System............................................ ........... 1
January 30, 2005, Elections for an Interim Government........................................ ............. 1
Permanent Constitution...................................... .................................................. ............... 2
December 15, 2005, Elections......................................... .................................................. .. 3
2006-2011: Sectarian Conflict and U.S.-Assisted Reconciliation .................................................. . 4
Benchmarks and a Troop Surge............................................. .................................................. .. 4
The Strengthening of Maliki and the Iraqi Government: 2008-2009 ........................................ 5
Attempts to Decentralize Governance: Provincial Powers Law and
January 31, 2009, Provincial Elections .................................................. .......................... 5
The March 7, 2010, Elections: Shiites Fracture and Sunnis Cohere ......................................... 7
Election Law Dispute and Final Provisions .................................................. ...................... 8
Election Parameters........................................ .................................................. ................... 9
Flashpoint: De-Baathification and Disqualification of Some Prominent Sunnis.............. 10
Election and Results........................................... .................................................. ............. 11
Post-Election Government .................................................. .............................................. 12
Agreement on a New Government Reached (“Irbil Agreement”)..................................... 12
2010-2014 Government Formed .................................................. ..................................... 13
Unresolved Schisms and Post-U.S. Withdrawal Political Collapse.......................................... ..... 14
Centralization of Power Disputes/Security Ministry Appointments...................................... .. 14
Security Ministerial Appointments...................................... .............................................. 15
National Council for Strategic Policies Dispute........................................... ..................... 15
Broader Sunni Community Grievances and Reactions .................................................. ......... 16
Sunni Insurgent Violence/Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQ-I) and Naqshabandis ............................ 16
Sunni Moves to Form Separate Regions .................................................. ......................... 17
Sons of Iraq Fighters .................................................. .................................................. ..... 17
KRG-Central Government Disputes.......................................... .............................................. 18
Territorial Issues/“Disputed Internal Boundaries” .................................................. .......... 18
KRG Oil Exports/Oil Laws.............................................. ................................................. 20
Intra-Kurdish Divisions......................................... .................................................. .......... 21
The Sadr Faction’s Continuing Ambition and Agitation .................................................. ....... 21
Post-U.S. Withdrawal Political Crisis............................................ .......................................... 22
The Crisis Abates but Defies Easy Resolution........................................ .......................... 23
Effect of the Crisis on Upcoming Elections......................................... ............................. 24
Related Governance Issues .................................................. .................................................. ........ 25
National Oil Laws and Other Pending Laws/Budget .................................................. ............ 25
Response to Arab Spring-Related Demonstrations.................................... .............................. 26
Protest-Prompted Governmental Reforms .................................................. ...................... 26
General Human Rights Issues............................................ .................................................. .... 27
Trafficking in Persons .................................................. .................................................. ... 27
Media and Free Expression........................................ .................................................. ..... 28
Labor Rights............................................ .................................................. ........................ 28
Religious Freedom/Situation of the Christian Religious Minority.................................... 28
Women’s Rights .................................................. .................................................. ............ 29
Corruption .................................................. .................................................. ..................... 29
Mass Graves .................................................. .................................................. ..................30