Iraq to the lack of spatial development policies behind the problematic economic construction

7/30/2015 0:00

Former adviser to the United Nations D.kamil dentex «morning»

Interview: Yasser incumbent

Iraqi economic expert stressed that the spatial development is one of the most important pillars of justice in the distribution of wealth, is achieved through the distribution of productive investment projects in between the provinces, particularly in the the presence of large, including economic disparity, said economist expatriate Dr. full dentex in an interview with {the morning} that any comprehensive plan should be based on the diagnosis of resources, on the one hand, and the areas of investment in productivity and service to the country level projects, and in geographical or sites Terms of the investment areas are available by, on the one hand Okhry.oukal dentex, a former expert in the United Nations: the rickety infrastructure already built and expanded and that is parallel or even pre-condition for the provision of a suitable ground for the construction of investment projects of the built master. However, it is known that the construction of a vast network of reconstruction of infrastructure in the large country, such as Iraq requires a large volume of investments, also requires a period of time is short for implementation.

The text of the interview conducted with him {morning} comes: meet the challenges Q: What is the optimal solution to the challenges facing the development? - the solution lies in the distribution of investment projects and this distribution can not be done randomly but requires an important economic criteria in the selection they need to questions requiring answers and adequate, and spatial development is one of the most important pillars of justice in the distribution of wealth, it is achieved through the distribution of investment projects productivity in between the provinces, especially in the presence of a large, including uneven economic. and does not constitute distribution projects only way developmentally parallel between the different country's geographic areas, Apart from the fact that this distribution is a major contribution to the GDP growth, it provides a rewarding income probably Population in the various provinces, and helps reduce the disparity between the population in different areas, it helps to mitigate or reduce the migration from poor provinces to the rich provinces, where happens this imbalance in the distribution of the population, and would raise the social and perhaps political in rich provinces densely populated problems. And will be subject to investment projects distributed in turn to the task of economic criteria summed quizzed looking for that solution Are available occasion such as raw materials, local resources?

Potential renaissance * Is the appropriate capabilities required by these projects are available? - Is the infrastructure available, such as roads, bridges and transportation, both for export or to transport products to the rest of Iraq, whether for consumption or for use as feedstock for other industries in other provinces?

These questions must be posed by the investor, in the case of the weakness of these requirements, it will pose another question about the value of the investments required to meet the potential shortfall in the province concerned? The time it would take this command to undertaken by the Government, for example, in the least to strengthen the means of transportation and communications and to build the required roads?

These questions must be posed by the investor, even if the central government alone is to be undertaken. The principle of installing the population in their areas will reduce the economic costs and reduces the emergence of social problems, as well as a decrease of overcrowding and reduce the environmental impacts arising out of it in the case of the weakness of the means of preserving the environment and avoid spatial distortions caused by population migration in architectural periphery of the cities which migrates its population from parties that, as happened during the great migrations to Baghdad and can not undertake these tasks in a manner routine management of the government, as it has to be set up economic and architectural plan with the development of guidelines and educational policies, the timed approach calculated, being carried on according to the goals and objectives, taking into account the obstacles and problems to be encountered during the implementation of the plan which may be the near-term, medium or long term, in line with the incubation of investment period, ie how long the implementation of the planned projects. for the construction plans in the light of the availability of investments, allocated by the government or be adopted by the Iraqi private sector and foreign, must be available Studies and statistical information required for this purpose, it can not be such a success without a plan to provide graphic indicators and studies demographic, geographic, environmental and economic. And that as well as information, education and guidance provides, and to convince people that "living" will be on their doorstep, if available factors necessary to do so.

Planning methods * What are the steps required to follow under the mixture is homogenized in Iraqi economic approach and non-specific in order to avoid crises and economic distortions? - we differentiation in the concept of planning in both countries and the socialist countries and the capitalist countries that blends between socialism and capitalism, in the sense reform Ootamehh growth. In this regard dentex it shows that planning in the socialist countries focuses on the role of the state / government for the design and implementation of the plans. Central Valdoair, such as the ministry of planning or development, as has often called in the socialist countries, which are put different economic plans Bamad time. The planning process here, is the research and work of art and a forward-looking predictive. And requires a description of planning process a lot of technical detail in itself. that any comprehensive plan based on the diagnosis of resources, on the one hand, and the areas of investment in productivity and service to the country level projects, and in geographical or areas where investment conditions are available sites, on the other hand.

So Projects are appropriate and investments have a diagnosis in the light of many planning standards, including identifying investment goals and the amount of executive supplies, human, technical and marketing, and define the objectives of the plan, in terms of volume of production and the size of employment and the size of the investment and the time horizon for implementation, and the amount of the expected contribution to the GDP, and the amount of services assistance and the infrastructure required, and other planning considerations that do not set up without detailed metadata to the variables of growth provide; consumption is expected, the size of the expected exports, and rates of evolution in incomes and the rise is expected in the standard of living. We note that socialist planning may exclude the participation of the private sector or even participation , where the government is becoming a planned port at the same time in the extreme cases, but some socialist states may allow for specific posts for the private sector in the Executive and service areas, for example. In the capitalist countries, Vttoffer full freedom of the local private sector, usually, and foreign according to the guidelines, it is not Only the implementation of investment projects, and even financing, planning and management. And the responsibility of the owners of capital for these projects are complete, but they of course will be held later to pay income taxes to be achieved the highest profits they reap. Of course, the investor has to be here to get the approvals from the relevant departments, to determine the legality of the project site and product, and preservation of the environment, security and so on.

But the state / government played an important role in guiding these equities provide studies on demand and the amount of the expected growth rates of the volume, and perhaps provide temporary protection for when the project back on its feet and be able to domestic and foreign competition. The role of government in the capitalist system is a guideline and supervisory but does not include Aaltakotait and implementation processes. If what has been termed the nomination of some socialist, but he is not a socialist orientation and protective and supportive perhaps, but not as an outlet. In countries that fall in the category of between capitalism and socialism countries, we may find a mix of socialism and capitalism operations. Because of the weakness of the private sector, meaning that the local private investor has the resources and the money may not be available to do the investing himself, and here the government interfere with the planning of the projects, has been monitoring the resources to invest them, but they may allow the private sector to play a role Contractor port, and possibly allow him to participate in the ownership of the project through the allocation of shares for sale in such projects that may arise in the form of joint ventures to public companies. It also allows the local private sector and foreign establishment of productive and service projects, but according to the executive, architectural and municipal regulations laid down by the state apparatus. It is true Aniz that such a system is located between the two systems socialist and capitalist, and perhaps reap the advantages of the two systems and perhaps also Saiathma.

Infrastructure problem * infrastructure in Iraq rickety is the basis to move towards construction and reconstruction, What is the best way to invest in such strategic projects, borrowing or financing Order term? - that rickety infrastructure already built and expanded and that is parallel or even pre-condition for the provision of a suitable ground for the construction of investment projects of the built master. However, it is known that the construction of a vast network of infrastructure in a large country, such as Iraq requires a large volume of investments, also requires is a short period of time for implementation. In this case, the first question that jumps in front of us is whether the necessary funds in foreign currencies is mainly available to achieve this construction within a limited number of years? Direct answer, because of lower oil prices, on the one hand, and the war on terror of mainly organized Daash terrorist and what that entails in the depletion of the balance of the financial budget of the government, on the other hand, their low allocations for the purpose of investment in the general budget originally, from a third party, can not be the direct possibility in the implementation of large-scale projects for the rehabilitation of infrastructure in the Iraqi economy. He seems, then, that borrowing is the way may become available for this purpose, assuming that there is a minimum level of stability is available for this purpose. However, Valaguetrad especially the outside is too expensive because of high interest on the one hand, and because of the lack of adequate stability for it. In this case he may be thinking pressing need to invest foreign loans to a minimum, Mptdoan projects have priority in the list of targeted projects, characterized by urgency and importance. But it requires an investment plan designed for this purpose, drawn as measured targets and time dimensions versus Classifieds tables of financial resources according to priorities, corresponding tables so-called cash flow, any showing sources of resources; local and foreign dividends, compared with no revenue may be realized from completed projects . All this should be calculated and planned within the time horizons consistent and the possibilities offered by an increase after oil exports. Funding Order forward, it will be of two types; local and will be the currency of the Iraqi dinar, and this can clog the allocated wages and salaries and the value of contracting local labor and contractors, local Iraqis; and this does not constitute the most important figure in commissioning projects, they need the permission of the foreign borrowing in dollars to buy equipment and machinery and materials imported from abroad. Accordingly, this matter will be located within the designed plan for this purpose, as we indicated.

Impediments Planning * What do you think impediments to planning and development in Iraq? - To understand the constraints of planning and development in Iraq, it is necessary to understand, at least, outlines the requirements for planning and development in the country. Starting the planning, essentially, on the availability of planning vision of the state of the Iraqi economy. This requires the provision of descriptive and analytical studies detailed structure of the Iraqi economy standards of quantity, where being diagnosed the ills of the economy and impediments to grow, and the distribution of economic activities and their determinants and the size and quality of available labor, and resources that can be allocated for investment, those directed to infrastructure, and levels of income and consumption and expectations of returns from exports, especially oil to determine the ranges of time, usually, according to the time plan may extend to five years or more. These are fundamental studies for the design of the plan, after the demarcation of the expected size of the obstacles to offset perceptions to the size of these obstacles and how to overcome them. The most beautiful planning requirements for development, the following:

1. Provide data and statistics are based on surveys and studies in situ include all aspects of the Iraqi economy;

2.taufer diagnostic indicators, in light of this data, statistics and surveys to a conclusion quantitative targets that could be proposed for the growth of economic activities at annual rates after the completion of the implementation of each project activity. And can be divided into activities at the college level, ie at the macroeconomic level, and at the sectoral level, any of the branches of activities; such as agriculture, irrigation and water industries; Mining and Manufacturing and craft small and perhaps medium, and the activities of building and construction, and this branch of infrastructure projects to the construction of houses and buildings of private and public , and the activities of transportation, storage, and service projects; schools, hospitals and many others, which requires many details, can not be mentioned now.

3.taufer studies and expectations for revenues; oil revenues, customs duties, taxes and fees revenues, and profits of public sector institutions and others.

4.thouder tables called cash flow; include the estimated expenditures and revenue projections, if any, on the one project level, and the amount of export revenues versus imports bills and Other lots.

5.taatsm plan rates of implementation of investment projects, and the problems of the anticipated implementation, and so on.

6.tad Ministry of Planning and tables to follow up on implementation in order to diagnose obstacles, and propose solutions and actions to achieve the implementation of plans within the time Amadha. foregoing shows development planning is a technical process based on quantitative and expectations probability studies, with drawing methods landmarks to overcome the difficulties of implementation or funding and other field difficulties. of the above, give us a a preliminary idea about the nature of the planning process for development.

The possible obstacles, it we noted it, including those related to the efficient implementation, including those related to Bouktal expectations set for the returns, including those related to failure in the allocation assigned Lala amounts investment versus growing knee-jerk good for consumption, which then, lack of integrity and rampant corruption, nepotism and waste .