The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015
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  1. #1

    The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015


    US dollar USD 1166.000 1164.000

    US dollar USD 1166.000 1164.000
    Euro EUR 1271.173 1270.538
    British pound GBP 1819.660 1818.750
    Canadian dollar CAD 895.133 894.685
    Swiss franc CHF 1214.836 1214.229
    Swedish krona SEK 136.252 136.183
    Norwegian krone NOK 142.845 142.773
    Danish krone DKK 170.363 170.278
    Japanese yen JPY 9.418 9.414
    Drawing Rights
    SDR 1624.285 1623.472

    Indicative rates - (as of) 23.07.2015

    Currency Auctions

    Announcement No. (2999 most recent listing)

    The opening offers the sale and purchase of foreign currency in the window of the Central Bank of Iraq on 22/07/2015 results were as follows: (No change as of 4:36 a.m. CST 23/07/2015)

    Number of banks 24
    Number of remittance companies 8
    Auction price selling dinar / US$ 1166
    Auction price buying dinar / US$ -----
    Amount sold at auction price (US$) 292,866,000
    Amount purchased at Auction price (US$) -----
    Total offers for buying (US$) 292,866,000
    Total offers for selling (US$) -----
    Last edited by pinkadonai1; 07-24-2015 at 10:21 AM.

  2. #2

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    The Exchange Rate of Foreign Currency in Economic Feasibility Studies

    Below are the central controls related to the exchange rate of the foreign currency to convert the project inputs and outputs from foreign currency to its equivalent in the local currency, and that is by calculating the net discounted present value standard and the internal return on investments in economic analysis that governs investment projects that costs excess one million dinars.

    Estimate the shadow price of foreign currency:

    1. It is necessary to put central controls to amend the official exchange rate * to reflect the shadow price of the foreign currency, and that is considered one of the necessary requirements to implement the net discounted present value standard and the internal return rate on investment in the economic calculation stated in the instructions, paragraph nine.

    The central controls for adjusting market prices distinguished a group of outputs and inputs traded internationally, where the projects production or usage of them is reflected on the abundance of foreign currency in the economy and thus project outputs or inputs used of such are considered purely foreign currency outputs or inputs.

    * What is meant by exchange rate: the number of units of foreign currency, expressed in dollar per one dinar.In particular the following outputs and inputs of foreign currency were distinguished:

    • Export-outputs.
    • Outputs marketed locally that substitute imports.
    • Imported inputs.
    • Inputs produced locally that usually go to exports.
    • Foreign labor.

    According to the pricing rules the value of the output and input (traded) is calculated using export prices (FOB) and import prices (CIF), according to what is listed in the pricing rules.

    In other words the pricing rules calculate what the project produces from foreign currency (quantity of exports multiplied by the export price (FOB) in foreign currency or the quantity of substitute imports multiplied by the import price (CIF) in foreign currency, as well as what the project uses from foreign currency and imported inputs multiplied by the import price (CIF) in foreign currency …. etc.).

    In a later step, project outputs and inputs must be converted from the foreign currency to its equivalent in local currency (dinars) by using a specific exchange rate for the foreign currency.

    2. Justifications for exchange-rate adjustment: there are a number of important and powerful arguments which support the view that the official exchange rate reduces the real value of foreign currency for purposes of calculating the economic national profitability for investment projects and hence for the purposes of investment planning. It is demonstrated in this context to call for assessing the dinar for less than (3.208) dollar (official exchange rate) when assessing project outputs and inputs of traded goods of exports, substitute imports and imports… etc.

    The justifications to call for the use of an exchange rate that is lower than the official exchange rate are:

    • The use of an exchange rate that is lower than the official rate is the appropriate action at the investment planning level to translate the country’s economic strategy aiming at stimulating central investments in the sectors that encourage the development of non-oil exports, as well as sectors that encourage the expansion of domestic production base in order to reduce imports and compensate it with local commodities. This helps to reduce reliance on foreign exchange earnings from crude oil exports and increases the share of non-oil sectors in the local production.
    • The application of the amended exchange rate on project imported inputs will assist in directing investments away from aggregated sectors dependent on imported inputs and the preference of those sectors that rely on locally produced inputs.
    • The use of the amended exchange rate helps to correct the balance in favor of the traded goods sectors compared to non-traded goods.
    • The real exchange rate has declined rapidly since the early seventies, through rapid rise of the level of prices and local costs which led by the steadiness of the official exchange rate to change in prices and actual local rate costs that gave an advantage for imported goods at the expense of locally produced goods, meaning that it led to deterioration of the competitiveness of alternative replacement goods and export commodities.
    • This action shows that the official exchange rate overestimates the value of the dinar, compared to the foreign currency and from the promoting goods substituting imports and export commodities point of view of.

    And in support to this view is the state’s utilization and in a broad approach to the customs and quantitative protection policies especially for consumer goods, as well as export subsidies that exports have through an amended export exchange rate.

    3. Estimate the amended exchange rate of the Iraqi dinar to be used in technical and economical feasibility studies and for (1.134) dollar per dinar. This price should be approved for 3 years until re-appreciation by the competent authorities.

    The Republic of Iraq – Ministry of Planning


    A "flashback recap" of a Live Q and A Call from about a year ago - on THE DAILY DINAR NEWS BLOG...

    In general terms – there were three main focal points of interest I wanted to cover and then allow listeners to ask whatever questions they liked.

    1) the SIGR report…

    2) the Gold Article…

    3) the IIER report…

    I started the conversation out last night by highlighting how crazy this campaign being fielded to contact our lawmakers and bank CEO’s and tell them how unfair it is they are getting to exchange (exchange is the right terminology BTW – NOT “CASH-IN”) at 32.00 per Dinar and we are not – is. It is nuts.

    Firstly, “they” are NOT being allowed to exchange “early” – or at 32.00 per Dinar. It makes you sound “stark raving MAD” to be caught saying such things. You would be better off barking at the moon. It is demeaning to the validity of a true currency play.

    Secondly, this is entirely the wrong way to approach them. I pointed out on the call that Poppy and I fielded a very successful such campaign a couple of years ago. However, we sat down and came up with a much different approach. It was designed to get answers and to approach our lawmakers with respect and as their constituents. Not like a bunch of lunatics. We had extraordinary participation (because it made sense) and we received a good response from lawmakers. It started the conversation in a reasonable manner.

    I asked one caller – “when was the last time you asked a banker for money and told him how unfair it was if he didn’t give it to you”??? Obviously – we chuckled…

    Another caller asked me if (as DC had relayed) – the “zero’s were raised” and the lower denominations were in circulation??

    I said plainly “no”…lower denominations being in circulation would (at the very least) imply there had been a value change. If there were no value change the lower denoms would not only be of little value, they would be such a hinderance – people might even throw them away just to get rid of them. So no – no lower denoms. I told the caller to check the website for “real” info on rate change.

    The “zero’s being raised” or “deleted” – as explained by any reasonable researcher, economist or authority – is simply the process removing the large (3 zero notes) from circulation.

    Referring to an Enorrste post from today on
    THE DINAR OBSERVER DAILY(you may want to put this on your favorites and check in several times a day – we to it often )

    “…I have never found a single article from the CBI or the IMF that equates “delete the zeros” to the idea of “move the decimal point.” Instead, the statements overwhelmingly come out to mean “remove the large notes from circulation.”

    Also – this recent internal memo put out by Wells Fargo is likely “push back” from this recent campaign. I pointed out that Pinnacle Bank published an article by an “affiliate” in their internal publication and then “highlighted it” in a similar internal memo a couple of years ago. It is just a defense mechanism. I’m sure Wells is tired of having their name dragged through the “internet rumor mill”. This is highly likely the reason for their vigorous denials about handling it in the future. They get so many useless calls – it isn’t worth the headache. Can you blame them??

    Further, for any bank, lawmaker, adviser or official to state the “Dinar is a scam” is nearly as foolish as some of the internet “Gurus”. It is the official currency of a COUNTRY. I pointed out (below) the post from yesterday’s
    – highlights page 94 of the quarterly SIGR report to THE US CONGRESS in April of 2012…
    __________________________________________________ _____________


    We are seeing and hearing that the inflation rate is still climbing and they are pushing to get us our money?? This report is from page 84 of the massive SIGR report.

    BGG ~
    This is a screen shot from the “Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction” – Apr 2012, quarterly report to Congress. For members of our Government to say they have no idea what is going on here – means they haven’t read some very basic documents presented them.
    __________________________________________________ ______________

    I pointed out (last night) this is a highly speculative investment. We are, in no way, guaranteed anything. However, this SIGR report gives us some valuable insights…

    1) This is information given to the US CONGRESS on a quarterly basis… I find it hard to believe such an information source would intentionally mislead Congress. They tend to frown on such behavior. Which goes directly to the validity of this adventure – against all advice from Wells Fargo or other such naysayers.

    2) It points out there having been a legitimate “plan” – or time frame in motion…having been projected to be done in 2013. We are obviously in “over time” now.

    3) It gives us an idea as to who is in charge…the CoM – or Council of Ministers. Who do they answer to?? Maliki. Period. When is he likely to push this forward?? Historically – he has been a “weak Dinar” policy advocate. However, rumor from his own inner circle admits he can’t win a third term in office without some currency reform.

    I fully expect him to use every tool in his “wheel house” to win – his recent moves in Anbar and the disputed territories prove as much. Currency reform has to be a “biggie”. Though this WAS their thinking a couple of months ago – there is no promise it is still part of their political calculus. We shall see.

    4) Though no guarantee of the actual future plan they wind up engaging – this report points out an increase in value that would have taken the Dinar from “one-tenth of a cent” to a value “of slightly less than $1″..

    __________________________________________________ ______________


    Coins put on the market !!

    Nora Albjara member of the committee of economy and investment in the House of Representatives revealed that the central bank completed its preparations for the issuance of metal coins of seven small groups, in conjunction with the implementation of the project to delete the three zeroes from the paper currency is currently in circulation.

    She said in her statement Albjara "The project will take between four and five years, and which will be the launch of the categories of small coins gradually."

    He predicted the financial expert Hilal Taan inflation rate declines, with the issuance of metal coins of small denominations in the daily financial transactions, remarkable that 3% of the value of inflation in Iraq due to the presence of large cash block.

    The economic expert on behalf of Jamil Anton, noted that he may not find metal coins accepted by a lot of Iraqis, especially young people, due to the existence of an entire generation of Iraqis had not trading coins due to stop use since the early nineties of the twentieth century


    CBI is preparing to issue a monetary metal parts

    Metal coins from the category of 25 fils were in circulation until the nineties of the last century

    Nora Albjara member of the committee of economy and investment in the House of Representatives revealed that the central bank completed its preparations for the issuance of metal coins of seven small groups, in conjunction with the implementation of the project to delete the three zeroes from the paper currency is currently in circulation.

    She said in her statement Albjara Radio Free Iraq, "said the project will take between four and five years, and which will be the launch of the categories of small coins gradually."

    He predicted the financial expert Hilal Taan inflation rate declines, with the issuance of metal coins of small denominations in the daily financial transactions, remarkable that 3% of the value of inflation in Iraq due to the presence of large cash block.

    The economic expert on behalf of Jamil Anton, noted that he may not find coins accepted by a lot of Iraqis, especially young people, due to the existence of an entire generation of Iraqis had not trading coins due to stop use since the early nineties of the twentieth century.


    Another "FLASHBACK"...

    Economists Divided Over Deletion Of Zeros

    By Amina al-Dahabi for Al-Monitor.

    The Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) has been attempting to delete three zeros from the Iraqi currency since 2003. This project has raised many concerns among the Iraqi public and within the business community, and Iraqi economists are divided…

    …Haider al-Abadi, the head of the Iraqi parliamentary Finance Committee, told Al-Monitor that while deleting zeros from the current currency is possible, this has been postponed until after parliamentary elections. He noted that studies are being carried out to ensure that, following the currency change, counterfeiting is limited and that Iraqis don’t go back to trading in the old currency.

    The step to delete zeros from the currency has been postponed several times, leading the parliamentary Economic Committee to demand that the CBI accelerate this project, as Al-Sharqiya reported. In a news conference held July 6, the Economic Committee confirmed that the deletion of zeros will lead to an increase in the value of the Iraqi dinar and will have positive repercussions, including a reduction in unemployment and poverty rates in the country.


    Crush Expected When Kuwaiti Banks Reopen Today

    March 24, 1991|From Reuters

    KUWAIT CITY, Kuwait — Thousands of Kuwaitis are expected to jam the country's banks today when they open for the first time since the end of the Iraqi occupation.

    Customers will be allowed to withdraw funds and to swap pre-invasion money for a new currency issued to make more than $1 billion in pre-invasion dinars stolen by the Iraqis worthless.

    "We expect a rush of people," said Issam Asousi, an executive with the Bank of Kuwait. He said it could be a chaotic first week because customers have a lot of questions about their accounts.

    Kuwaiti banks continued operating during the seven-month Iraqi occupation under managers brought in from Iraq, but they have been closed since the U.S.-led alliance ousted the Iraqi army from Kuwait a month ago.

    When the banks reopen today, customers will be able to withdraw up to 4,000 Kuwaiti dinars, equivalent to about $14,000 at pre-invasion exchange rates from their accounts, and to exchange a like amount for foreign currency.

    Balances of customers' accounts will go back to what they were on Aug. 1, a day before the invasion.

    Clients will not be able to exchange Iraqi currency issued during the occupation, when Baghdad pegged the rates of the strong Kuwaiti dinar to the far less valuable Iraqi dinar.

    The new Kuwaiti money will be exchanged for old at a one-to-one rate.

    BGG ~ Thanks to wmawhite for some facts on the subject.

    Hi BGG,

    Just thought I would drop you an email. I listened to the call, and was interested in what was said about Kuwait, if I may - I will add my 2 cents worth.

    You were spot on with what you said, I have a close friend who's father made a killing on the KWD. He bought from people who had fled the country and he paid pennies on the dollar (we are in Australia). He took the chance that Iraq would be kicked back out and he was right.

    When the money was reinstated, he exchanged it for AUD at a rate in the mid 3s. The interesting thing about it is, Iraq invaded in November 1990 (I think), they were kicked back out at the end of Feb 1991, the banks reopened with a brand new KWD in late March, that's not a bad time frame to get a currency designed, printed and made ready to use, also the time that the old KWD was valid was initially only for 2 months, then extended to 6, so it was valid until Sept 1991, interesting I think.

    Also the other thing that seems to be a "fact" in Dinar land is Bill Clinton used the Kuwait RV to pay off the debt. However, Clinton was not President in 91, he did not take office until 93, even I know that and I am an Aussie.

    Anyway thanks for the site and enjoy listening to your calls.

    Kind Regards,

  3. #3

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Iraqi Army’s Golden Division inflicted great losses upon ISIS in Ramadi

    By Amre Sarhan - Jul 23, 2015

    ( al-Anbar – The deputy commander of the Golden Division of the Iraqi Army in Anbar province, Brigadier-General Abdul-Amir al-Khazraji, announced on Friday, that the elements of the division were able to inflict considerable human and material losses upon the ranks of the organization “ISIS” and forcing them to withdraw from Ramadi.

    Khazraji stated for, “The Golden Division, backed by army troops as well as the local police, federal police elements and tribal fighters, had managed to repel an attack by ISIS on the center of Ramadi,” pointing out that, “Our soldiers clashed with the offensive elements of ISIS, inflicting upon them great human and material losses, while also forced them to withdraw.”

    “The Golden Division will defend Anbar until it is liberated from ISIS,” Khazraji added.

  4. #4

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Iraqi forces kill 14 ISIS elements during clashes east of Ramadi

    By Amre Sarhan - Jul 23, 2015

    ( al-Anbar – The Federal Police Command said on Wednesday the killing of 14 element of “ISIS” as well as the destruction of three armored vehicles belonging to them in clashes with the organization in the area of al-Madeek east of Ramadi.

    Raed Shaker Jawdat, the commander of the Federal Police Forces, announced in a statement received by, “The rapid intervention brigade of the federal police had managed, today, to repel an attack by ISIS on the defensive lines of the security troops in the area of al-Madeek in east of Ramadi,” adding that, “The clashes between the two sides resulted in killing 14 element of ISIS and the destruction of three armored vehicles belonging to them.”

  5. #5

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Iraq renounces al-Maliki's remarks against Saudi Arabia
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 13:10

    Shafaq News / Presidencies of the Republic and the Ministers confirmed Iraq's commitment to the establishment of better relations with Saudi Arabia, in response to the claim of Vice President ,

    Nuri al-Maliki on putting Saudi Arabia under international trusteeship.

    According to al-Sharq al-Awsat Saudi newspaper ,al-Maliki’s claim came through Afaq satellite channel that he owns.

    The spokesman of the Presidency of the Republic, Khaled Shwani said that the statements issued by al-Maliki are personal opinion and does not represent the official position of the Presidency of the Republic in Iraq.

    He added that the President of the Republic , Fuad Masum sought and will seek to develop and establish better relations with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and that he had previously worked on this approach and will continue it, knowing that this approach has achieved good results so far.

    In turn, the Iraqi government confirmed quoting the Media Office of the Prime Minister , Haider al-Abadi its firm stance on the development of relations between Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

    The spokesman for the Media Office of the Prime Minister , Saad al-Hadithi said in a statement that the Iraqi government's position has not changed about the nature of the relationships with the countries of the world, in the forefront of the Arab and Islamic geographical neighbors, including Saudi Arabia in the framework of the new policy pursued by the current government Since its formation last year based on opening up to the countries in the region on the basis of mutual interests and face the risks and challenges.

    Al-Hadithi added that Iraq had begun after the formation of this government , the openness policy and open a new page with all countries, including the Kingdom in order to resolve outstanding problems and develop bilateral relations in the framework of a vision based on mutual respect and non-interference in the internal affairs of both parties, as well as coordination in facing ISIS organization which began threatening the entire region countries, which requires common positions by everyone.

    He stressed that Iraq was in the front in the embodiment of this new relationship with the Arab Gulf states, particularly Saudi Arabia through visits by senior Iraqi officials, which resulted in a Saudi concrete steps through reopening the embassy occasion , create the ground for it , the designation of an Ambassador and the visit of the Saudi technical delegation, which are encouraging steps, noting that Iraq is looking forward to visits by Saudi officials to Iraq.

    For its part, the General Secretariat of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation condemned Maliki's comments, describing it as irresponsible, especially since it is issued by an official who has a senior position in the Iraqi government, saying that such statements are inconsistent with the OIC charter, which calls for the strengthening of relations between the Member States on the basis of justice and mutual respect and good neighborliness, non-interference in the internal affairs of Member States.
    Last edited by rcookie; 07-23-2015 at 11:09 AM.

  6. #6

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Iraq announces the export of more than 3 million bpd of oil at a price of more than $ 55
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 12:40

    Shafaq News / The Iraqi Ministry of Oil announced the exported quantities of crude oil and the revenue generated for June, according to the final statistics

    issued by the Iraqi Oil Marketing Company "SOMO".

    The total amount of oil exports reached (95.6) Ninety-five million six hundred thousand barrels, while total earned revenue reached (5.289) and five billion, two hundred and eighty-nine million dollars.

    The spokesman of the Oil Ministry, Assem Jihad said in an interview received by Shafaq News, that the daily exports of crude oil rate rose, reaching approximately (3.187) three million, one hundred and eighty-seven thousand barrels per day (bpd) which has not been achieved during the past decades.

    He explained that the total exported quantities from the southern port of Basra reached (90.7) ninety million seven hundred thousand barrels earnings of $ (5.008) five billion and eight million dollars, while exports reached through the port of Ceyhan (4.9) four million nine hundred thousand barrels and revenues amounted to (281) two hundred and eighty one million dollars.

    Jihad said that the sale of a barrel of crude oil price stood at (55 324) dollars.

    He said that amounts above have been downloaded by 36 international oil company carrying different nationalities from the ports of Basra , Khor al-Amaya and buoys on the Arabian Gulf and the Turkish port of Ceyhan.

    He noted that the ministry has made a special effort to increase its exports of crude oil to achieve additional revenues for the federal budget.$-55.html

  7. #7

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Military battalions arrive west of Fallujah in preparation "for the last page of Anbar Liberation "
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 12:17

    Shafaq News / Three military battalions have arrived on Thursday west of Fallujah in Al-Anbar province to complete the operation, which was launched to liberate

    the province from the control of ISIS terrorist organization.

    A statement issued by the Military Media War of the Popular Mobilization Units said that three military regiments arrived "al-Halahat" area west of Fallujah, in preparation for the start of the last page of liberating Anbar cities from the control of ISIS.

  8. #8

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    The government sends the decision to reduce allocations of special grades to concerned authorities
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 11:58

    Shafaq News / The General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers has sent a decision on the reduction of provisions for special grades and senior officials of the three presidencies

    to the ministries and departments not associated with a Ministry and all the provinces.

    The resolution voted by the Council of Ministers in its meeting held recently stipulates to reduce Prime Minister and his deputies’ allocations by 50%, the amount of what is received by President of the Republic and the Parliament Speaker’s salary and allowances as the case with the Prime Minister after the reduction, as the amount of what is received by the Vice President , the Vice Speaker of the Parliament as the salary and allowances of Deputy Prime Minister after the reduction.

    The resolution also provided the reduction of 45% from the Minister’s allocations, as the amount earned after reduction by an MP by salary and allowances of the minister after the reduction and deduct 40% of the allocations of Deputy ministries , Advisers , those with special grades , general managers and those as their grade and anyone gets as much as their salaries.

    The resolution also listed the reduction of the allocations of the three presidencies, bodies and departments associated to it by 30%.

    The resolution states that the Ministry of Finance , the Federal Office of Financial Supervision and financial units of the presidencies, ministries and departments not associated with a Ministry to implement the reduction of allocations from the date of 01.08.2015.

  9. #9

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    Diyala demands to build a memorial in "Khan Bani Saad" explosion place
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 10:25

    Shafaq News / The Head of Diyala provincial council, Mohammad Jawad al-Hamdani demanded on Thursday the establishment of a monument in the place of the bombing in Khan Bani Saad

    that took place last week to commemorate the victims.

    Al-Hamdani said in a statement received by Shafaq News, that "the disaster that Bani Saad sub-district was exposed to must be dealt with in exceptional and special priority due to the size of the tragedy suffered by the region and the number of victims, whose number exceeded 200 people Martyr and wounded."

    He demanded "to launch immediate compensation to the victims of the terrorist bombing bloody that plagued the region in a catastrophic, especially since a lot of families lost their breadwinners and need support and assistance that would help to support orphans and the families of the martyrs of the criminal bombing on the night of Eid al-Fitr as the center has also suffered from significant destruction, which requires the allocation of sufficient funds for the rehabilitation of the region and to compensate those affected from the shopkeepers. "

    Al-Hamdani called for "the need to perpetuate this tragedy by putting a memorial at the scene in order to remain a witness to the extent of crime and vile of ISIS and a warning for future generations of complacency from dealing with extremist terrorist ideas carried by these criminal groups."

    He stressed that "Diyala province didn’t witness over the past years a similar crime led to this number of victims and wounded that reflected heavily on the public , official and internationalist attention .

  10. #10

    Re: The Dinar Daily, Thursday July 23, 2015

    US Defense Secretary arrives Iraq after nuclear talks
    Thursday, 23 July 2015 11:11

    Shafaq News / US Defense Secretary , Ashton Carter arrived on Thursday, to Baghdad to meet with Iraqi officials, after a tour in the region included signing

    agreement about Iran's nuclear program which raises concern of the Gulf states.

    A US official said that Carter also will remind again that the United States intends to repel extremists along the lines of the "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant" - "ISIS."

    The US Secretary of State , John Kerry's visit to Doha in the third of next August will be carried out to meet with his counterparts in the GCC and reassure them that Washington will work with them to counter the influence of Iran "and illegal movements in the region."

    Carter will meet with Iraqi Prime Minister ,Haider al-Abadi and Defense Minister ,Khaled al-Obeidi to discuss the battle against ISIS terrorists.

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