The Washington Times: Iraq's oil revenues to pay for donor countries to reconsider Bmsaaadatha
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
U.S. newspaper saw that Iraq was now a middle-income country and large oil revenues, but it still depends on the U.S. charity in reconstruction.
She told The Washington Times, in its report, said that after about two years of ending the military commitment to the Iraq war, is still the United States and its allies are paying millions of dollars in reconstruction, even though that Baghdad reap revenue from its oil industry while increasing instability and the approach of the government from Iran.
It is through an international trust fund was established in 2004, brought together the United States and 16 other donor countries, nearly two billion dollars for reconstruction projects in Iraq. After that it was scheduled for the end of the Fund on 31 December last year, the Trust Fund was renewed for another year on the basis of a request from Baghdad.
The paper considers that it is now difficult to justify these grants to Iraq, given the large Iraqi oil revenues.
The United Nations said in its latest report on Iraq Trust Fund, said, "These high levels of production, accompanied by global oil prices supported by geopolitical concerns, Treasury came to Iraq, including nearly $ 100 billion for this year." The report added that "the situation in Iraq as a middle-income countries has led to declining donor interest and reduce global finance him."
The Washington Times that "donor countries are now withdrawal from the trust fund will be returned unspent granted to them in the next year, according to an official at the World Bank," adding that "the United States is not among those countries."
The newspaper pointed out that "the biggest donors to the trust fund are the European Union, Japan and Spain. Despite the fact that the United States contributed ten million dollars, but it has spent about $ 60 billion in reconstruction during the war."
Most of the grants went to more than 200 development project, half of which was not completed until the end of the year 2012, when he did not use $ 54 million at least from the Fund.
The United States supports Iraq in other ways. In the current year, given Washington to Baghdad, U.S. $ 470 million in foreign aid format, and submitted a request to give Iraq another $ 500 million in form of assistance for the year 2014. As well as this, the United States plans to lend Iraq $ 573 million to buy U.S. military equipment, and this is a common practice known as foreign military financing.
He defended an official at the U.S. State Department for assistance to Iraq despite increasing Iraq's oil revenues, saying that the aid aims to sustain the company's strategy with Iraq, a leading purpose.
For example, Iraq agreed to increase oil production in the part of the bridge the gaps left by the international sanctions imposed on Iran and its oil industry, said the official, who requested anonymity.
Said the official, asking, "Is Iraq was doing it? Of course not." He added that "it is clear that Iran's influence in Iraq, but we also have the effect of it. Iraqis have stated publicly that we are their partners those" favor.
Since the United States left Iraq in December 2011, claimed the violence escalate to levels not seen since 2008.
In the last month, 743 Iraqis were killed and a thousand injured and 625 were wounded in bombings and clashes in parts of the country. In October 2012, 136 Iraqis were killed and 376 wounded with a variety of attacks, according to statistics compiled by AFP.
The tensions worsened between the country's Shiite majority, which leads the government, and Sunni Okulaith, which ruled Iraq under Saddam Hussein's strong man and now it feels persecuted.
And cause a government attack on the camp of protesters last year in April, killing at least 23 Iraqis were stirring cycle of Sunni-Shiite attacks and counter-attacks in areas of the country.
Analysts say that the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, who took office in 2006, he could restrain tensions, but he instead continued marginalization of the year, prompting some of their collections to the armed resistance.
Jacob says Stokes, an analyst Center for a New American Security, said he was al-Maliki said could "negotiate a cease-fire with the local Sunni community or personal appointment of a Sunni high level of his government and give him some power."
He added that "there are things he could do and produces reduce sectarian element to low levels, but this approach is not in place yet."
Since the departure of the troops, claimed Iraq is growing closer to Iran, which is predominantly Shi'ite and allowed to Iran, despite Washington protest, the transfer of air weapons to the Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad over Iraqi airspace.
It seeks Qaeda fighters, most of them years old, to take control of Iraq and Syria for the purpose of linking the two Islamic state. The rule is now at its strongest level in Iraq since 2006, according to the director of the Center said counter-terrorism, Matthew Olsen, the Committee in the Senate last Thursday.
Analysts noted something of irony a Maliki recent visit to the United States, during which demand more military equipment.
Stokes said, "If you come to the United States for further assistance, it is not you can also help Iran to transfer weapons to Syria." "I think that Congress would give further assistance if were not for arms transfers."
The official said the U.S. State Department that there is a diminished number of trips Iran to Syria through Iraqi airspace, but there is "room for further improvement" in preventing Iran flights to Syria.
In the meantime, Iraq's oil sector thrives. As the issue of the country far more than 3 million barrels of oil per day, and oil, such as approximately 9.38 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) growth in 2012.
And is expected to grow oil revenues. فوكالة Global Energy expects Iraq to be responsible for half of the increase in global oil production during the year 2035.
Although there are many needs to be accomplished on the political front in Baghdad, U.S. officials say they are seeing some progress in terms of the agreement with the country's minority Sunni and Kurdish.
The U.S. State Department official said that "there is paralysis in the political situation. It is difficult for them to deal with fewer issues when they can not agree on larger issues."
He added that the situation was "far from perfect, but Maliki now related to tribal elders in Anbar, the Sunni and the President of the Parliament. Meeting held units in the last month to establish rules of ethics and honor."
The official said, "they toil. It is hard work but we say we do not have the weight there, if you look at the last eight months in any situation they are and what the situation in which they are now, it did not happen a magic wand."
The official noted that U.S. assistance to Iraq declined sharply almost half the $ 850 million that were given in the year 2012, and that the foreign military financing declined to about 50 percent of what was given in the same year.
The official said that despite the oil revenues, Iraq finds itself in a huge need to development because of three decades of deprivation under Saddam and the war with Iran in the eighties.
There is a key focus point for cooperation on the rule that emerged again in Iraq and spread in Syria. The official said that "the biggest fears Iraq is if Sunni extremists seized on Syria," he said, adding that "such a situation that causes enormous complexity on their western borders."
The United States plans to send military equipment and to provide intelligence support for Iraq to be able to deal with this threat, which would give the United States greater influence in the country, analysts say. The paper concluded its report by saying Stokes "By the end of the day, we could not control the al-Maliki when we had tens of thousands of American soldiers on the ground," but he pointed out that "we can persuade al-Maliki that he does not want to see his country fall again into chaos. You do not want be the person who caused this mess. "
Jafari, Hakeem discuss means to run in the upcoming election
Baghdad (NINA) – Leader of the National Alliance, Ibrahim al-Jafari, received on Tuesday, Nov. 19, Leader of the Supreme Iraqi Islamic Council, Ammar al-Hakeem.
A statement issued by Jafari's Office said that in the meeting, the two evaluated current kpolitical situation, future outlook through consolidate national front toward integrating patriotic forces to run in the next election.
They also discussed state building through investing election programs via priorities to upgrade the institutions' works; they stressed the necessity for active participation in the election and to support the political process.
Baghdad Rejects Oil Revenues Mechanism Proposed by Turkey
“Iraq is a sovereign country and it does not seek counseling from foreign countries for distribution of its revenues,” said Khalid Saadi, an MP from the State of Law Coalition. “Iraq has laws to settle these issues,” he added. Last Saturday, Turkish Energy Minister Taner Yildiz proposed a mechanism to end the long-standing dispute between Iraq and its autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) over the sharing of oil revenues. Yildiz said that he discussed the issue with Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister for Energy Affairs Hussein Shahristani, but has not yet heard back from him. “The distribution of the revenues would be carried out by Iraq, we would only hold these deposits at a Turkish state bank," said the Turkish energy minister. Saadi said that Yildiz’s proposal would only lead to further deterioration of relations between Baghdad and Ankara. After two years of strained relations over Syria, Sunni populations in Iraq and Kurdistan energy deals with Ankara, Iraq and Turkey mended relations earlier this month through exchange visits by their respective foreign ministers. The Iraqi parliament has failed to pass the Hydrocarbon Law, which has been languishing since 2007 over disagreements between Kurds, Sunnis and Shiites. Meanwhile, Farhad Atrushi, a member of the Iraqi parliament’s Oil and Gas Committee, expressed doubt that Baghdad would ever agree to Turkey's proposal. “Article 112 of the Iraqi constitution allows the KRG to run its oil affairs,” he argued. That article of the Iraqi constitution allows the federal government, in cooperation with the producing regional government and governorates, to manage oil and gas extraction. It also allows the right to distribute revenues “in a fair manner in proportion to the population.” Atrushi concurred with Saadi that the distribution of Iraqi revenues is an Iraqi internal matter, but believed that other stakeholders should be taken into consideration. “Undoubtedly, this is a domestic matter, but Turkey is still a party in this issue because Kurdistan’s oil pipelines go through Turkey. In addition, the biggest Turkish oil company has investments in Kurdistan’s oil sector,” he said. Atrushi maintained that the Kurdistan Region should not be treated like another province. “The region has been governing itself for years,” he noted. The KRG demands that Baghdad pay the fees for international oil companies operating in Kurdistan, which it says amount to $5 billion. Over such disputes, the KRG has halted exporting some 100,000 barrels per day since December 2012 through Iraqi-Turkish pipeline that are managed by the central government.
Kurdish Congress Stalled Over Issues in Syrian Kurdistan
Fuad Hussein, chief of staff for Kurdistan Region President Massoud Barzani, said that a planned Kurdish Congress has been stalled because of differences among political parties, but mainly over the unfolding events in Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava). ďThere is a main issue between the PYD (Democratic Union Party) and other Syrian Kurdish parties. They have deep issues over the border and other things. So, if you can't agree on this, then it impacts the congress,Ē he explained in an interview with Rudaw. Here is an edited transcript of his comments:
Rudaw: Why was the Kurdish National Congress not held on time?
Fuad Hussein: The conference was delayed by consensus. All the parties were at the meeting -- PKK, PYD, BDP and all the other Kurdish parties from all parts of Kurdistan -- that decided to delay the congress. There are technical issues for not holding the congress. But the delay has got nothing to do with (President) Barzani. There are big issues within the political Kurdish parties. There is a main issue between the PYD and other Syrian Kurdish parties. They have deep issues over the border and other things. So, if you can't agree on this, then it impacts the congress. The congress was initiated by Barzani and has been on the agenda for four years, but the political situation was not helpful. When the political parties united and decided to work together, Barzani proposed formation of a preparatory committee, but the issue in Rojava is big and unless it is solved we can't hold the congress.
The issue in Rojava is big and unless it is solved we can't hold the congress.
Rudaw: And why was it postponed again this month? It is said that the neighboring countries like Iran, Turkey and Iraq were against this congress.
Fuad Hussein: Of course, if you say that the Kurdish congress is to create a greater Kurdistan, there will be such reaction from the regional countries and there was in fact such reaction. Besides, peopleís expectations were raised which caused reaction in the region and the outside world. Different interpretations and proposals were made about the congress. Some said it would be to establish a greater Kurdistan. Others were making comparisons to the European Union or for the congress to become something like the Arab League. But these proposals were wrong. Barzaniís goal for the congress was to tell the world that we are one nation, have our own identity and that we want to reach our goals through political means and dialogue. It was to give a message of peace to our people, the region and the world. We wanted to tell the world that our people have rights and we want to reach our rights.
The timing of the congress was always right and it still is, but it changed when other ideas entered the scene. I also think that not everything should have appeared in the media. You can discuss and debate everything in a meeting, but why give it to the media before you have reached a decision? When it is in the media, then the outside world will think it is a decision. Others will read it as a plan. They will not take it as just part of the dialogue.
Rudaw: Donít you think the problem had also to do with representation? For example, the Kurdistan Region taking part as a government and others only as political parties?
The timing of the congress was always right and it still is,
Fuad Hussein: The invitation from the president was for all political parties, and members of the organizing committee themselves also said that they represented the political parties. But in the meantime, the Kurdistan Region is a recognized constitutional entity. It has a legal and political status. It has a parliament, government and flag. Therefore, it is natural that this region would take into account its own interest and that of the cultural and political and economic interests of its people. But generally all Kurdish political parties were present in the organizing committee.
There was another initial issue to do with attendees. Six hundred representatives were agreed to be invited, in addition to another 300 guests. So these were some of the issues about the distribution of the representatives. Political parties did not agree on the distribution of the number of seats. Some from eastern Kurdistan suggested equal seats for all parts of Kurdistan at 150 seats, but for example, the PKK did not agree to this. They said that they have a bigger population in north (Turkish) Kurdistan, so their representatives in the congress should be more. This was one of the issues.
Rudaw: Did Turkish officials talk about the peace process with you?
Fuad Hussein: PKK is in a peace process. Sometimes there are media statements that the process has stalled, but that could only be related to the tactics of negotiations. PKK holds talks with Turkish officials; the BDP meets with Ocalan and Turkish officials about the peace process. During our meeting with (Turkish premier) Erdogan and the Turkish officials, they always talked about the peace process. I think the democratic package is the first step and other steps will follow, however I cannot speak for the AKP (Justice and Development Party). But the PKK says the package is insufficient. However, what is important is that neither the PKK nor Ankara reject the peace process and both think the process is needed. The PKK says that all their demands are met, while Turkey says the internal situation of the country needs to be taken into account.
Rudaw: Do you think this package will succeed even though it does not mention the Kurds?
What is important is that neither the PKK nor Ankara reject the peace process and both think the process is needed.
Fuad Hussein: A peace process is like a train with different stations and sometimes the train needs to stop at the station. So it is normal if the peace process needs to stop for a while at the very first station. However, this is related to the negotiators themselves. When the process started, KRG Prime Minister Nechirvan Barzani and President Massoud Barzani talked about this with Turkish officials. Both have offered proposals about this process and the AKP has listened to them. We did not talk about this because this is an internal issue in Turkey.
Rudaw: Do you think the change of PKK leadership will affect the peace process?
Fuad Hussein: I can't comment on it, but we hear fiery statements from Qandil from time to time. But in all cases, the process has started in Turkey and itís an important one. But nothing can be changed overnight. More works need to be done on the process and the Kurdistan Region will continue to assist the process.
Rudaw: Does President Barzani have contact with PKK leader Cemil Bayik?
Fuad Hussein: You cannot say there is no contact. I donít know if there is direct contact between the PKK leader and Barzani but contacts do not necessarily have to be between the two leaders. Also, during the preparatory works of the organization committee for the Kurdish Congress, PKK officials and other party officials met in the presidential office. Now, the relations between the Kurdish political parties are not secret like the past. Now, everyone knows that there would be contact with the PKK and itís natural. When Turkey has contacts with the PKK on a peace process that was proposed by Barzani, it is only obvious that we are in contact with them too.
Guard official was killed President Talabani armed attack inside his house east of Sulaimaniya
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
Alsumaria News / Sulaymaniyah
A security source said in Sulaimaniyah province, on Wednesday, that the official guards of President Jalal Talabani killed an armed attack inside his house east of Sulaymaniyah.
The source said in an interview for "Alsumaria News" that "unidentified gunmen stormed the morning, a house belonging to an official guard of President Jalal Talabani called سروت Hama Rashid in the neighborhood Kanye Ba east of Sulaymaniyah, and opened fire on his neighbor, which resulted in his death on the spot," noting that "the victim was preparing to go to the hospital, which where Talabani Germany lay."
The source, who requested anonymity, that "the security force cordoned off the scene and transported the body to the forensic medicine department, opened an investigation to know ملابساته and the party that stands behind it."
The province of Sulaimaniya (364 km north of Baghdad) is one of the provinces stable security compared to the provinces of the center and south of the country, but it is seen from time to time mostly targeted operations against civilians and fall within criminal offenses.
Planning approve the reallocation prior budgets of Kirkuk amounts to complete projects in the governorate
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
Alsumaria News / Kirkuk
Kirkuk province announced, Wednesday, that the Ministry of Planning and approved the reallocation of $ 375 billion dinars from previous budgets of the province to complete service projects in Kirkuk, saying that the exchange of such amounts is an important step to ensure the completion of these projects that serve the people of the province.
The governor of Kirkuk Necmettin cream in an interview for "Alsumaria News", "The Ministry of Planning and approved the reallocation amounts disbursed to the budgets of previous years, projects have achieved completion rates high," noting that "these funds amounted to 375 billion dinars."
And the price of cream "the role of the Minister of Planning Ali Shukri in the federal government and the Department of Planning and Follow-up Kirkuk for their work and Msahthm in overcoming obstacles and facilitate the redeployment of that money, and work to achieve the exchange to ensure the repayment of the companies and contractors working projects service within the times specified in across the province."
Karim stressed that "the exchange of those amounts is an important step to ensure the implementation of plans and projects that serve the people of the province and contribute to the transfer of Kirkuk to the more conservative revival and prosperity."
The province of Kirkuk, announced the end of last October, for complete them exchange budget for the current year, which exceeded the 530 billion dinars, and by more than 400 projects, with managed last year of the exchange budget fully, which included more than 700 billion earmarked for hundreds of service projects.
Zamili describes Ahrar bloc, Citizen bloc alliance as "Strategic"
Wednesday, 20 November 2013 13:51
Baghdad (AIN) –MP, Hakim al-Zamili, of al-Ahrar bloc within the Sadr Trend described the alliance between his bloc and the Citizen bloc within the Supreme Iraqi Islamic Council headed by Ammar al-Hakim, as "Strategic."
Speaking to All Iraq News Agency (AIN), he said "The Citizen bloc is the closest bloc to the Sadr Trend that we have a strategic alliance with."
"The recent actions by the head of the Sadr Trend, Muqtada al-Sadr, over contacted the Sadrist figures who split from the Trend, are good actions that unity the Sadrists and settle all the tensions among them," he concluded.
Osman: U.S. proposed to oversee the oil exports of the region is unacceptable
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
Alsumaria News / Baghdad
The leader of the Kurdistan Alliance, Mahmoud Othman, on Wednesday, the U.S. proposed to oversee oil exports to the region as a solution to the dispute between Baghdad and Erbil is unacceptable.
Osman said in an interview for "Alsumaria News", "The proposal submitted by the U.S. administration to oversee the oil exports of the Kurdistan region via the new tube through Turkish territory and bid farewell to revenue in a state-owned banks and Turkish divided between Baghdad and Erbil is unacceptable," adding that "interference in the internal affairs of Iraq, is not entitled to any state intervention in matters of sovereign Iraq. "
Osman promised to "Baghdad and Erbil commitment to the Constitution and to expedite the enactment of the oil and gas will guarantee solve all the problems related to oil between the two parties," he said, adding "no need for a third party is dominated by oil revenues because it belongs to the people."
The Turkish government has proposed, last week, to play the role of mediator between the province and the center on the division of oil revenues from Kurdistan, indicating that the two sides have not Atouselan until now to the system, who are willing him on those revenues.
Shahristani growth rate is expected to rise in Iraq to 10% over the next five years
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
Alsumaria News / Baghdad
Predicted Deputy Prime Minister for Energy Affairs Hussain al-Shahristani, Wednesday, the high rate of growth in Iraq to 10% over the next five years, at a time confirmed the high per capita income of the Iraqi to six thousand dollars, called for the need to rely on statistical data real professional to draw state policy.
Shahristani said during a speech at the Fourth Scientific Conference of the statisticians Arabs held in Baghdad and attended "Alsumaria News", "The growth rate in Iraq rose during the past five years to reach currently 9%," expected to "increase this rate to up to 10% during the past five المقلبة ".
Shahristani said that "income per capita gross domestic product rose the other is for up to 6 thousands of dollars annually after that was a thousand dollars," noting that "the Arab countries undergoing in various fields and therefore need to be a development plan for the advancement of social betterment."
Shahristani said that "Iraq launched during the last period of the Five-Year Development Plan 2013 - 2017, which included all aspects of human development and economic, social and cultural development."
He stressed Shahristani on the need to "plan includes the development of all types of life and rely on statistical data a real professional and lifelike found not propitiate political who stands up for the work of the executive," stressing that "Iraq is keen to neutral device Statistical knowledge of the situation as it is and put the right solutions to plan a court characterized by neutrality for all problems that Twadja the social reality. "
The Ministry of Planning held on Wednesday, the fourth conference of Arab statisticians under the banner of demographic shifts and the role of statistics in population policy and that the ministry announced the acceptance of 95 in search of the world's international conference of Statistics which will be held next Wednesday.
The International Scientific Conference of the Federation of tes-Arab, which will be held in Baghdad is the fourth after they were held previously in three Arab capitals over the years and will organize a conference under the theme "Population Development Goal and وسيلتها" which is organized by the Federation of statisticians Arabs to participate and cooperate with the Central Bureau of Statistics and the hosting of The Ministry of Planning of the Republic of Iraq and the support of the Rafidain University College in Baghdad and the United Nations Fund for Population.
Ban Ki-moon showing concern for the continuation of the "deterioration" of security in Iraq and calls to achieve "balance" and political "expansion" of relations with Kuwait
20-11-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
Range Press / Baghdad
The Secretary-General of the United, on Wednesday, expressed "concern" of the "deteriorating" security situation in Iraq by "hindering" efforts for national reconciliation, while calling for "balance" political participation at the national level and local level, "expressed" happiness " constantly improved relations between Iraq and Kuwait, and hoped that "expanded" to include economic and cultural ties.
This came during a presentation by the Secretary General of the United Aaltdh, Ban Ki-moon, periodic report on the activities of the mission UNAMI, in front of the UN Security Council, on Tuesday evening, (the 19 of November 2013 present), New York time, as quoted by the Kuwait News Agency, and seen by ( Press-term).
The moon, he was "worried about the deteriorating security situation in Iraq, which could hinder efforts for national reconciliation," adding that "the security situation in Iraq is still getting worse rate of attacks almost daily by armed groups and terrorist forced many to forced migration for sectarian reasons and ethnic lines. "
The Secretary-General of the United Nations that "terrorist operations reached levels not seen in Iraq since 2008," stressing "the need to achieve a balance of political participation at the national level and local level, and the settlement of the democratic process and institutional, with the promotion of economic development through job creation and provision of services and the elimination of corruption. "
Also mentions that the graph of violence in Iraq continues to rise, amid worsening political crisis chronic in the country, and the continuing deterioration of services, and mobility anti-government in areas of the Sunni majority, since more than 11 months without the looming glimmer of resolve.
More than 5,600 people have been killed since the beginning of the current year 2013, including 964 in last October, the bloodiest month since April 2008, and according to official figures.
In the axis of his report, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, "the hope constantly improving bilateral relations between Iraq and Kuwait, and to expand those relationships to include economic and cultural ties."
He expressed moon, "happiness constantly improved relations between the two countries, which was broken to allow Iraq to Kuwait to open consulates in Erbil and Basra," hoping that "the result of this improvement in relations to create mutual trust bigger and even economic and trade relations and cultural stronger between the two countries."
He said the Security-General, in his report, said he hoped that "this positive development leads to improve Iraq's relations with the rest of the neighboring countries about is in the interest of regional stability."
The Iraqi-Kuwaiti relations experienced a "sophisticated and clear" in recent years after the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime, as the two countries agreed to end the outstanding problems between them, which was evident when he visited the Prime Minister of Kuwait, Jaber Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, in (12 June 2013) , the capital Baghdad on an official visit, a one-day, and the visit resulted in the signing of six agreements with Kuwait in various fields, and Iraq confirmed that it fulfilled all its obligations in Chapter VII with Kuwait, and will move to Chapter VI.
The two countries have been able to overcome the many differences between them in the past months, in the context of Iraq sought his relentless attempts to get out of Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which allows the imposition of international sanctions on it.
Since the two countries signed in (28 May 2013), two memoranda of understanding concerning the arrangements for the physical maintenance of the common border and the financing of the construction of a residential complex in Umm Qasr, indicating that the Kuwaiti side expressed its readiness to help Iraq out of the provisions of Chapter VII.
And the voice of the Iraqi parliament on the draft law on ratification of the agreement establishing a joint committee for cooperation between the Governments of the Republic of Iraq and Kuwait, while the other signs of normalization of relations is the vote of the Iraqi parliament, in (22 August 2013), on the draft law on ratification of the Convention on the organization of maritime border demarcation in Khawr Abd Allah between the parties.
He also stressed the Prime Minister of Iraq, Nouri al-Maliki, in (the 22 of September 2013), the importance of developing relations between Iraq and Kuwait in various fields, and the need for continued cooperation between the two countries to serve the common interests, while expressing the Kuwaiti ambassador in Iraq for "happiness level reached by the Iraqi-Kuwaiti relations. "