Maliki attacking his allies in the Shiite alliance .. ويتهم الجميع بالتقصير Everyone accused of negligence
25-07-2013 | (صوت العراق) - 25-07-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
بغداد: حمزة مصطفى أربيل: شيرزاد شيخاني Baghdad: Hamza Mustafa Arbil: Shirzad Shikhani of the
في مكاشفة هي الأولى من نوعها له منذ توليه منصبه رئيسا لوزراء العراق للمرة الأولى في مايو (أيار) 2006، شن نوري المالكي أعنف هجوم على شركائه في التحالف الحاكم (التحالف الوطني) وبالذات التيار الصدري، الذي يتزعمه مقتدى الصدر، والمجلس الأعلى الإسلامي بزعامة عمار الحكيم. In the showdown is the first of its kind since he took office as prime minister of Iraq for the first time in May 2006, launched Nuri al-Maliki the deadliest attack on its partners in the ruling coalition (National Alliance) and in particular the Sadrist movement, which is led by Muqtada al-Sadr, and the Islamic Supreme Council headed by Ammar Hakim. كما شمل هجوم المالكي نائبيه للخدمات صالح المطلك وللطاقة حسين الشهرستاني، وعددا من وزرائه، بل طالت انتقاداته حتى المواطنين. The attack also included al-Maliki deputies Saleh al-Mutlaq Services and Energy Hussain al-Shahristani, and a number of his ministers, long criticism even citizens.
مكاشفة المالكي جاءت في لقاء تلفزيوني له مع عدد من المختصين بالشأنين الاقتصادي والسياسي بثته قناة «العراقية» الفضائية الحكومية مساء أول من أمس، بعد أقل من 48 ساعة على أخطر عملية هروب جماعي من السجون في تاريخ الدولة العراقية إثر عملية اقتحام نفذتها مجاميع من تنظيم القاعدة على سجني «الحوت» في التاجي شمال بغداد و«أبو غريب» غرب العاصمة. Showdown Maliki came in a television interview him with a number of specialists Bconin economic and political aired «Iraq» Satellite government on Thursday evening, after less than 48 hours for the most serious process escape a mass of prisons in the history of the Iraqi state after a raid carried out by groups of al-Qaeda the prisons 'whale' in Taji, north of Baghdad and Abu Ghraib west of the capital.
ونأى المالكي بنفسه عن الكثير من المشكلات الأمنية والخدمية والاقتصادية التي تعصف بالبلاد. Maliki distanced himself from a lot of problems, security and services and economic ravaging the country. واعتبر أن كبار المسؤولين في حكومته ومنهم «صديقي وحليفي» حسين الشهرستاني يقدمون له معلومات مضللة بشأن الكهرباء ومنها قولهم له إن تجهيز المحافظات الوسطى والجنوبية من الكهرباء يتعدى 20 ساعة بينما لا تتعدى ساعات التجهيز الحقيقية ما بين 6 و8 ساعات. He said that senior officials in his government, including «my friend and allies» Hussain al-Shahristani offer him misleading information on their respective electricity and saying to him that the processing of the central and southern governorates of electricity exceeding 20 hours while not exceeding the actual hours of processing between 6 and 8 hours.
وفي وقت يعيش فيه أهالي بغداد هلعا حقيقيا بعد فرار نحو 500 سجين يتقدمهم العشرات من عتاة تنظيم القاعدة وأمرائه المحكومين بالإعدام مما يعني عودتهم ثانية لبدء دورة جديدة من أعمال العنف، نفى المالكي أنه يقدم دعما لميليشيات شيعية، واصفا في هذا السياق واثق البطاط، قائد «جيش المختار» وزعيم «حزب الله العراقي - المقاومة الإسلامية» بأنه «مخبول»، نافيا في الوقت نفسه تقديم «أي دعم للخارجين عن القانون من (العصائب) أو (الكتائب)». At the time, home to the people of Baghdad panic true after the flight of about 500 prisoners, led by dozens of hardened al-Qaida and princes sentenced to death, which means they return again to start a new cycle of violence, denied al-Maliki that it provides support for Shi'ite militias, describing in this context confident Battat, commander « Selected Army and the leader of the Iraqi Hezbollah - the Islamic Resistance »as 'crazed', denying at the same time providing« no support for outlaws (Asaib) or (battalions). وأضاف: «أحب أن أطمئن أهالي بغداد بأنه لا وجود للبطاط وليس له أي جيش أو دعم حكومي»، مشيرا إلى أن «قوة أمنية خرجت يوم (أول من) أمس لاعتقاله ولم تعثر عليه». He added: «I would like to reassure the people of Baghdad that there is no potato and did not have any army or government support, pointing out that« security force went out on the (first) yesterday for his arrest and did not find him.
وفي إشارة واضحة إلى التيار الصدري الذي سلب منه بالاتفاق مع المجلس الأعلى الإسلامي حكومة بغداد التي تقاسمها التيار والمجلس مع كتلة «متحدون» التي يتزعمها خصمه العنيد أسامة النجيفي، رئيس البرلمان، هاجم المالكي «الميليشيات»، ووصفهم بأنهم «يرتكبون الموبقات». In an apparent reference to the Sadrists, who robbed him in agreement with the Islamic Supreme Council of the Baghdad government that shared power and the Council with a mass «united» led by his opponent stubborn Osama al-Nujaifi, Speaker of Parliament, attacked al-Maliki «militias», and describing them as «commit sins». وفي أخطر اتهام يمكن أن يوجه لتيار شيعي، قال المالكي إنه «عندما خرج التيار (الصدري) في كربلاء في الزيارة الشعبانية مولد الإمام المهدي، وإذا بهذه العصابات خرجت لتحتل الصحن الحسيني مثلما احتلوا صحن الإمام علي في النجف، وقاموا بحرق الفنادق والمنازل وباب الحضرة الحسينية لدرجة أن أحدهم كان يحمل حذاءه ويضرب باب الحسين حسبما تمت مشاهدته في تسجيل للفيديو، وهذا استفزاز لمشاعر الناس». In the most serious accusation can be directed to stream Shiite, Maliki said that «when output current (rib) in Karbala visit Alcabanih birth of Imam Mahdi, and if these bands emerged occupies saucer-Husseini as Occupy dish Imam Ali in Najaf, and burnt hotels, houses and the door Hadra Husseiniya to the extent that one of them was carrying his shoes and hits the door Hussein as has been seen in the video recording, and this is a provocation to the feelings of the people ». واعتبر المالكي أن ما حصل في منطقة الكرادة في بغداد مؤخرا هو نفسه ما كان يحصل في البصرة، متسائلا: «من أعطاك إجازة للذهاب إلى أصحاب المقاهي إذا كانوا مخالفين للآداب؟». He said al-Maliki that what happened in the Karrada district in Baghdad recently is the same as what was happening in Basra, wondering: 'Who gave you leave to go to the owners if they are cyber cafes for Literature? ». وأضاف: «توجد حكومة، فمن تكون لتصبح بديلا عن الحكومة والشرع والوطن؟». He added: «no government, it will be to become a substitute for the government and al-Shara and country?».
كما اعتبر المالكي أن «المحاصصة الطائفية تسببت بانتشار الفوضى في كل مؤسسات الدولة». Maliki also considered that «sectarian caused widespread chaos in all state institutions. وكشف عن أنه سيدخل الانتخابات المقبلة بقائمة فيها مستقلون ومهنيون، مؤكدا أنه لن يدخل في حكومة من دون أغلبية سياسية. And revealed that he will enter the next election with a list where independent professionals, stressing that it will not enter into a government without a political majority.
من ناحيته، يرى مؤيد طيب، المتحدث الرسمي باسم كتلة التحالف الكردستاني في مجلس النواب العراقي، في تصريح لـ«الشرق الأوسط»، أن الوضع السياسي «مرشح لمزيد من التصعيد، خاصة بعد تصاعد الخلافات بين المالكي والزعيم الشيعي مقتدى الصدر وتبادل الاتهامات بينهما. For his part, sees pro-ok, spokesman for the Kurdistan Alliance bloc in the Iraqi parliament, told «Middle East», that the political situation «a candidate for further escalation, especially after the escalation of the differences between Maliki and the Shiite leader Muqtada al-Sadr and the exchange of accusations between the two. والأنكى من ذلك هو المواجهة التي ظهرت على السطح بين المالكي ونائبه حسين الشهرستاني، وهي تظهر للعلن لأول مرة وتنذر بفك العلاقة المتينة بين المالكي والشهرستاني». Worse than that is the confrontation that surfaced between Maliki and his deputy, Hussein al-Shahristani, a show to the public for the first time and threatens to unzip the strong relationship between al-Maliki and al-Shahristani. عدنان السراج، القيادي في ائتلاف «دولة القانون»، قال إن «المالكي لديه مراجعات شاملة، وقد تكون جذرية على صعيد العملية السياسية والتحالفات، وقد بدأت هذه من مجالس المحافظات الأخيرة؛ إذ سبق أن قلنا إن كلا من السيدين عمار الحكيم ومقتدى الصدر قد نحرا التحالف الوطني». Adnan al-Sarraj, a leader of a coalition «rule of law», he said that «Maliki has a comprehensive review, and may be radical in terms of the political process and alliances, has started from the provincial latter;, as we have already said that both Messrs. Hakim and Muqtada al-Sadr has نحرا National Alliance ». وأضاف أن «المالكي ينطلق الآن من مسألة أساسية؛ إما معالجة الخلل في التحالف الوطني إذا أريد له الاستمرار، أم لا، إذ أنه أصبح لديه رأي بأنه لم تعد ثمة جدوى من التحالفات القائمة حاليا، خصوصا أن أقرب حلفائه إليه باتوا يعملون على إسقاطه بشتى السبل والوسائل». He added that «Maliki starts now a key issue; either address the imbalance in the National Alliance, if it is to continue, or not, as it has an opinion that he is no longer merit of existing alliances now, especially as his closest allies to him are now working on dropping in various ways and means ». وأوضح أن «الكرة الآن في ملعب الصدريين والمجلس الأعلى، فإذا لم يتداركوا الأمر، فإن التحالف الوطني لا وجود له، فهذه التحالفات أصبحت عدائية، وهو ما يتطلب إعادة صياغة جذرية لنمط التحالفات المقبلة». He explained that «the ball is now in the court of the Sadrists and the Supreme Council, If this is يتداركوا the, the National Alliance does not exist, these alliances have become hostile, which requires a radical reformulation of the pattern of future alliances.
Washington worried about the increasing pace of attacks by al-Qaeda and complexity in Iraq
25-07-2013 | (صوت العراق) - 25-07-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)
واشنطن: مايكل غوردن ودريد عدنان Washington: Michael Gordon and Duraid Adnan
تحمل الهجمات السافرة التي نفذت على اثنين من سجون العراق هذا الأسبوع أهمية كبيرة لا لما أسفرت عنه من إطلاق سراح مئات السجناء؛ بل لما تشير إليه بشأن القدرات المتنامية لتنظيم القاعدة، بحسب مسؤولين وخبراء. Carrying blatant attacks carried out on two prisons in Iraq this week of great importance not what resulted from the release of hundreds of prisoners; even to refer to him about the growing capabilities of al-Qaeda, according to officials and experts.
وقال خبراء غربيون إن الهجمات على سجني «أبو غريب» و«التاجي» التي تم الإعداد لها بدقة شديدة استخدم فيها أعضاء تنظيم القاعدة قذائف الهاون لضرب القوات العراقية، والانتحاريين لإحداث فجوات في دفاعاتهم، ثم أرسلوا قوة هجومية لتحرير السجناء. Western experts said that the attacks on the prisons of Abu Ghraib and 'coronary' which has been prepared meticulously used where members of al-Qaeda mortar shells hit Iraqi forces, and suicide bombers to cause gaps in their defenses, then sent an offensive force for the liberation of prisoners.
وقال مسؤول بارز في وزارة الخارجية الأميركية، طلب عدم ذكر اسمه: «نحن قلقون بشأن تزايد وتيرة وتعقيد عمليات (القاعدة) في العراق». Said a senior official in the U.S. State Department, who requested anonymity: «We are concerned about the increasing frequency and complexity of (al Qaeda) in Iraq. بدوره، أوضح جيمس جيفري، الذي كان سفير الولايات المتحدة في بغداد لدى رحيل آخر القوات الأميركية في ديسمبر (كانون الأول) 2011، إن «أداء القوات العراقية كان ضعيفا، وبات واضحا أن مهاراتهم شهدت تراجعا لأن القوات الأميركية التي كانت تدربهم رحلت». In turn, explained James Jeffrey, who was the U.S. ambassador in Baghdad, the departure of the last American troops in December (December 2011), that «the performance of Iraqi forces was weak, and it became clear that their skills declined because U.S. troops were trained deported». وقال جيفري، الذي يعمل الآن زميلا زائرا في «معهد واشنطن لسياسة الشرق الأدنى»: «هذه هي الحالة الأولى التي أرى فيها أن غياب القوات الأميركية، التي تقدم التدريب التكتيكي، له تأثير على أرض المعركة». Said Jeffrey, who is now a visiting fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy ':' This is the first case in which I see that the absence of U.S. troops, which provide tactical training, has an impact on the battlefield.
وتؤكد جرأة الهجومين على تدهور الأوضاع في العراق، حيث يتقوض الاستقرار من خلال تفجير السيارات المفخخة بصورة شبه يومية وأعمال عنف أخرى تتعلق بتجدد التوترات الطائفية. And emphasizes daring attacks on the deteriorating situation in Iraq, where undermined stability through car bombings almost daily, and other acts of violence related to the renewed sectarian tensions. ويقول حميد فاضل، أستاذ العلوم السياسية في جامعة بغداد: «لا يماثل هذا الهجوم أي هجوم آخر عندما يكون الهدف مقهى أو سوقا شعبية. He says Hamid Fadhil, a professor of political science at Baghdad University: «This is not the same attack another attack when the target cafe or a popular market. إنهم يستهدفون أكثر الأماكن تأمينا حيث توجد أعداد كبيرة من قوات الأمن». They are targeting the most insurance places where there are large numbers of security forces.
بدوره، قال جيفري إن عملية اقتحام السجون تثير القلق لأن ذلك من شأنه أن يعزز من قوة المتطرفين في المنطقة، لأن هذه العملية سينظر إليها باعتبارها إشارة إلى أن مقاتلي «القاعدة يزدادون قوة في الوقت الذي تبدو فيه قوات الحكومة العراقية عاجزة». In turn, Jeffrey said the storming prisons of concern because it would strengthen the power of the extremists in the region, because this process will be seen as an indication that al-Qaeda fighters are getting stronger in the time in which it looks Iraqi government forces powerless. وأضاف جيفري: «ستوفر خبرة وقيمة أخلاقية لـ(القاعدة) وحلفائها في كل من العراق وسوريا. Jeffrey added: «will provide valuable experience for ethical (base) and its allies in Iraq and Syria. ويتوقع أن يكون لها تأثير كبير على السكان السنة في العراق، الذين كانوا على الحياد». And is expected to have a significant impact on the Sunni population in Iraq, who were on the fence.
كما يتوقع أن يؤدي هرب السجناء التابعين لـ«القاعدة» إلى زيادة التهديدات الموجهة إلى قادة القبائل السنية الذين تحالفوا مع القوات الأميركية خلال زيادة القوات الأميركية في الفترة بين عامي 2007 و2008 وحاربوا المجموعات المتطرفة. It is also expected to result escaped prisoners belonging to al-Qaeda to increase threats to the Sunni tribal leaders who allied themselves with U.S. forces during the American troop buildup in the period between 2007 and 2008, and fought against extremist groups. وقال كيرك سويل، رئيس تحرير أخبار نشرة «داخل السياسة العراقية» إن الحدث تسبب في مزيد من التشويه لصورة رئيس الوزراء العراقي نوري المالكي الذي حاول الترويج لنفسه على أنه الرجل الذي أعاد الأمن للعراق، خاصة أنه تحكم في تعيينات كبار القادة واحتفظ بحقيبتي وزارتي الدفاع والداخلية لنفسه. Kirk said Sewell, editor of the News Bulletin «inside Iraqi politics» The event caused more distortion to the image of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, who tried to promote himself as the man who restored security to Iraq, especially that control the appointments of senior leaders and kept بحقيبتي and defense and interior ministries for himself. وقال سويل: «ذهب بريق المالكي كزعيم قوي تمكن من إعادة بناء العراق». Sewell said: «Gold glitter-Maliki as a strong leader able to re-build Iraq. وفي تطور آخر أثر على سمعة المالكي، أشار سويل إلى أن قائد الفرقة 17 العراقية استقال مؤخرا ووجه انتقادات لاذعة إلى القيادة السياسية العراقية. In another development, the impact on the reputation of al-Maliki, Sewell pointed out that the Iraqi commander of the 17th Division recently resigned and the face of harsh criticism to the Iraqi political leadership.
Kurdish Security Forces Shield Region
From Iraq's Security Woes
By: Fazel Hawramy for Al-Monitor Posted on July 24.
The Kurdistan Regional Government's sophisticated intelligence network has ensured relative peace in contrast to the rest of Iraq.
Author: Fazel Hawramy
Posted on: July 24 2013
Categories : Originals Iraq Security
“Are there Arabs onboard?” he asks. Kurds are waved through while Arab passengers are questioned, and almost all are told to get out of the car for further checks by the US-trained Kurdish security forces.
Strict control of access to Iraq’s autonomous Kurdish region has helped insulate it against the violence that plagues the rest of the country, where bombings and shootings are a daily reality that has driven thousands of Arabs, including Christians, north seeking refuge.
To illustrate how far removed the Kurdish region is from the security problems of the rest of Iraq, while militants stormed Abu Ghraib prison this week and released 500 convicts, including senior members of al-Qaeda, one of the top headlines in the local Kurdish press was the death of a 14-year-old girl stung by a scorpion.
Stability and security have attracted foreign investors, including some of the world’s largest oil companies, to Iraqi Kurdistan, dramatically improving the standard of living in a region that was once the most impoverished and repressed in Iraq. After years of suffering, even Kurds who complain about corruption and lack of transparency have a stake in maintaining the peace and security of the region.
“The main reason we have been successful in maintaining security is the full cooperation of the Kurdish people with the security forces,” one of the most senior security officials in the region told Al-Monitor on condition of anonymity.
Kurdish security forces known as Asayesh closely monitor everyone, including the local population but particularly outsiders, drawing on a web of informants across all walks of life. Many Kurdish households are on the government payroll, creating a network of patronage that engenders loyalty to the quasi-state.
"If I see anyone acting suspiciously while driving my taxi, I won't hesitate to call 106 [the emergency number] and report them to Asayesh,” said a taxi driver in the city of Sulaimaniyah who has worked with the Asayesh for the last 17 years. “As a matter of fact, I have called that number more than a 100 times and reported people who I believed were acting out of the ordinary."
Asked how the Asayesh operated, he said there were more than 1,000 other taxi drivers like him in Sulaimaniyah alone working closely with the security services, often on a voluntary basis, to help identify potential threats. “There is not a place in this city where we don’t have informers. Ordinary people happily inform on each other and we respond to the most trivial of incidents because we can’t afford to alienate the people who help us.”
The use of intelligence has so far proven effective in the Kurdish region while the central government insists on using devices such as "bomb detector" ADE651, which has had little effect in detecting explosives at checkpoints. Advice on the UK’s foreign-travel website strongly discourages all but essential travel to the whole of Iraq “except the Kurdistan region.”
Emma Sky, who was the governor of Kirkuk province from 2003 to 2004 and later became a political adviser to the US General Ray Odeirno in Iraq, attributed the stability and security of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) to the skill of its security services.
“[The KRG] has a professional and sophisticated intelligence apparatus which is loyal to the KRG, and which carefully monitors suspicious activities and controls access into the region," Sky said in an email interview with Al-Monitor.
Sky, who is currently a senior fellow at Yale University’s Jackson Institute, where she lectures on the New Iraq and Middle East Politics, considers the legitimacy of the KRG another important factor in maintaining security in the region.
"All political parties [in the KRG] recognize the political process and compete for power through elections. In the rest of Iraq, the legitimacy of the government is disputed by key constituents who feel excluded from the political process," she said.
But not all Kurdish areas are immune to violence. Around 100 km away in volatile, ethnically diverse Kirkuk, where a security trench is being built around the city, stray plastic sandals and pools of blood marked the spot where a suicide bomber blew himself up in a busy cafe on July 13, leaving 41 mostly young men dead.
Two days after the bombing, I asked a group of young men smoking shisha at the Penjweni cafe in the Kurdish city of Sulaimaniyah whether they ever worried about being targeted. "That thought is not even in the back of my mind,” one young man replied while his friends smiled and nodded in agreement.
A monument in a park in Erbil serves as a reminder of the danger. On it are engraved the names of 117 people who were killed when two suicide bombers tore through the offices of the region’s ruling party in 2004. Following those attacks, the senior official said the security forces had changed their approach, thwarting attacks in the making, sometimes outside the confines of the region.
"We have managed to keep the terrorist groups in check both inside and even outside the region. We have taken the fight to the terrorists … we foil their plots as they are being hatched.”
Fazel Hawramy is the editor of kurdishblogger.com and an independent journalist currently based in Iraqi Kurdistan. On Twitter: @Kurdishblogger
Islamists and Secularists: Reluctant Bedfellows of a Turbulent Iraq
by Hiwa Osman
Over the last few days, Iraq’s Islamists and secularists have been attacking and accusing each other in newspaper articles and Facebook posts, most of it centered on the closing of cafes in Baghdad by the city’s staunchly Shiite governor.
Secularists have likened the closures to attacks by Al-Qaeda, while the Islamists have applauded the governor’s actions “to uphold Islamic values.”
Until now, both sides have behaved as if the other does not exist, as if no one else has a right to a differing view or a different way of life.
But the recent exchange has had a positive aspect as well: It has led to both sides learning that they need each other, and possibly have to work together. In other words, they have woken up to this reality.
For their part, the Islamists today are understanding that they cannot have things their way any longer if they want to remain in government or as part of a political process.
The only way for them to impose their will is through violence, but they realize that this will result in them losing even what they have today. They fear a repeat of the story Egypt – where an elected Islamic party was ousted and is now fighting for survival -- but have no real strategy to avoid the same fate.
The secularists, on the other hand, seem fixated on the opportunity of catching and attacking an Islamist blunder What is also interesting is that they forget their own political weakness.
The secularists cannot mobilize the public and bring them into the streets as well as the Islamists have. At times, one preacher alone at a Friday sermon can gather more people than all of the professor-types in the secular camp. They, too, need to look at the early days of the Egyptian revolution.
In the midst of the conflict between the hardliners, it seems that there are few moderate voices in either camp.
What both sides should do is to turn some of the moderate rhetoric in their own camps into the foundation of a national understanding and dialogue.
It seems that, at the end of the day, both sides must live together for the foreseeable future. Both will be responsible in various degrees for the reconstruction or further destruction of their country.
Hiwa Osman is a media development specialist based in Erbil.
Expert: The World’s Last Oil Barrel May Well Come from Kurdistan Region
by HEVIDAR AHMED
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – Even after setting aside 10 billion barrels for future generations and increasing production fivefold from current volumes, Iraq’s fiercely autonomous Kurdistan Region has enough oil to last more than 120 years, according to a local expert.
Iraq’s Kurds, whose self-rule over three northern Iraqi provinces includes a regional government, a parliament, an army, a constitution and large control over oil production say they are confident that by the end of this year output will more than double from the current 200,000 barrels per day (bpd) to 500,000.
“At this rate, the oil reserves of the Kurdistan Region will last for 246 years; that’s in addition to 10 billion barrels that we should leave (untouched) for future generations,” says Erbil-based economist Dr Rebwar Khinsi.
He adds that even after the Kurdistan Region reaches its ambitious output target of one million barrels a day by 2015. the enclave – which is more like a country and at odds with Baghdad over oil, security and several other key issues -- still has enough oil to last 124 years.
If his calculations are correct, it explains why oil giants like ExxonMobil, Chevron, Total and Gazprom are among two dozen foreign firms engaged in oil deals or projects in Kurdistan, in defiance of threats from Baghdad warning against direct production and export contracts with Erbil.
Ashti Hawrami, minister of natural resources in the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), says that the enclave’s oil reserves are extremely important, because they add to the planet’s overall total.
“The oil reserves of the Kurdistan Region have not been added to the world reserve records yet,” he explains. “The world only talks about the oil reserves of Iraq, and the Iraqi federal government does not recognize the oil data of the KRG,” he says.
The KRG has pursued a largely independent oil policy, which has angered Baghdad. The Kurds have been in serious negotiations with Ankara for oil exports, which would feed Turkey’s own growing energy appetite and transform it into a major energy hub connecting the Middle East to Europe.
But Baghdad fears that by gaining greater economic independence the Kurds are moving toward eventually declaring independence – something that Washington has discouraged and which would have enormous regional consequences because of the large and restive Kurdish populations of Syria, Turkey and Iran.
Given the KRG’s vast and largely untapped oil reserves, international experts believe that the world’s last barrel of oil may well be extracted from the Kurdistan Region.
The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized market for the trading of currencies. The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. EBS and Reuters' dealing 3000 are two main interbank FX trading platforms. The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies.
The foreign exchange market assists international trade and investment by enabling currency conversion. For example, it permits a business in the United States to import goods from the European Union member states, especially Eurozone members, and pay Euros, even though its income is in United States dollars. It also supports direct speculation in the value of currencies, and the carry trade, speculation based on the interest rate differential between two currencies.
In a typical foreign exchange transaction, a party purchases some quantity of one currency by paying some quantity of another currency. The modern foreign exchange market began forming during the 1970s after three decades of government restrictions on foreign exchange transactions (the Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states after World War II), when countries gradually switched to floating exchange rates from the previous exchange rate regime, which remained fixed as per the Bretton Woods system.
The foreign exchange market is unique because of the following characteristics:
its huge trading volume representing the largest asset class in the world leading to high liquidity;
its geographical dispersion;
its continuous operation: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e., trading from 20:15 GMT on Sunday until 22:00 GMT Friday;
the variety of factors that affect exchange rates;
the low margins of relative profit compared with other markets of fixed income; and
the use of leverage to enhance profit and loss margins and with respect to account size.
As such, it has been referred to as the market closest to the ideal of perfect competition, notwithstanding currency intervention by central banks. According to the Bank for International Settlements, as of April 2010, average daily turnover in global foreign exchange markets is estimated at $3.98 trillion, a growth of approximately 20% over the $3.21 trillion daily volume as of April 2007. Some firms specializing on foreign exchange market had put the average daily turnover in excess of US$4 trillion.
The $3.98 trillion break-down is as follows:
$1.490 trillion in spot transactions
$475 billion in outright forwards
$1.765 trillion in foreign exchange swaps
$43 billion currency swaps
$207 billion in options and other products
Shara: General Amnesty Law will pass during the current parliamentary session
Baghdad / Baghdadi news / .. MP for the predicted mass of the Furat al-Shara citizen, Thursday, approving the general amnesty law during the current election cycle condition to the availability of goodwill and political consensus for approval.
Shara said the reporter / Baghdadi News / "The pending laws will recognize the sequence, each according to its importance," noting that "the general amnesty law is very important and should pay attention to the issue of approval at this session, stressing the importance that this law fair and equitable to those who entered prison unjustly."
Shara stressed the need for the failure to extend the senior criminals because that is the law unfairly disadvantage and to the martyrs and victims of terrorism and undermines the feelings of the families of the martyrs.
Sadr calls for the formation of a delegation to visit Talabani and uncover the facts in front of people, "the oppressed"
07/25/2013 - 14:53
Source: News Source
Alsumaria News / Baghdad
The leader Moqtada al-Sadr, on Thursday, to form a delegation to visit President Jalal Talabani and reassuring him.
Sadr said in a statement received "Alsumaria News", that "increased concern on the health of the President on the one hand, and on the outgrowth of Iraq without the President of the Republic or Seoul to him, God forbid," noting that "may if me and him after traveling some الروتينيات other . "
He called on the chest and the notables of Iraq and عشائره and doctors to "form a delegation prestigious and specialized to Talabani's visit and check on his health, and that we should not have قصرنا in his ordeal health is not morally and socially and nationally, as well as to check on the fate of Iraq whether we hope برجوعه or not?".
Sadr stressed "the delegation informed the oppressed Iraqi people the facts and reassure him, in order to Nfrg ذممنا in front of God and in front of our beloved people."
The medical team confirms Observers of the case Talabani almost continuously, that the latter's health improved continuously, and it is currently exchanging conversations with those around him, as he expected his return to the performance of his duties, without specifying the time for that.
The Supreme Judicial Council had asked last May by the President of the Parliament elected a new president, after it was considered that the president has become "free" due to travel Talabani and his illness.