" The Daily Dinar " ......... Thursday, 30 May 2013
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  1. #1

    " The Daily Dinar " ......... Thursday, 30 May 2013

    Iraqi Vice President called 'honor document is to contain the political crisis

    30-05-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)

    Baghdad: Hamza Mustafa
    Revealed Khalid al-Asadi, a member of the Iraqi parliament for a coalition of state law and a leading figure in the Dawa Party - Iraq Organization, led by Iraqi Vice President Khodair al that «the document honor» launched last yesterday «is part of the initiative, a comprehensive political was being worked out quietly for some time».
    He said al-Asadi who is close to Alkhozai told «Middle East» that «the document of honor is a view of an initial political project larger than it leads to finding a solution to the political crisis, the current in Iraq through dialogues depth begin a document of honor first and then crystallized in the form of project integrated national and does not override any initiative or project earlier, but integrates with him because in the end goal is to save the country from attempts by some to drag them to the draft sectarian strife.

    «Document of honor» launched by Alkhozai issued in the form of an official statement from his office and came in. «our belief in the need to create climates and appropriate atmosphere for peaceful coexistence and strengthen the bonds of national unity and strengthen the social fabric and build bridges of friendship and Islamic brotherhood and national between all the components of the Iraqi people and to devote the mutual trust between the forces national political and achieve common objectives emphasize the following principles and pledge to abide by and embodied. And adheres to the principles of national unity maintenance for the Iraqi people and the protection of the national fabric and do not let anyone find a religious or ethnic discrimination or sectarianism, and the adoption of the principle of dialogue as the only way to address the problems and the contract that Taatari march of the political process in the country ». It also stressed the «move away from the use of the media to put their differences and problems and resort to national meetings or bilateral and search for solutions through constitutional means and renounce the intersection and estrangement between the political forces in the event of crises and conflicts and seek solutions through dialogues direct». The document called for to work «to strengthen confidence between the parties to the political process, among them the one hand and with the Iraqi public on the other hand and pledge to work as one team to serve the nation and citizens, in addition to stand firmly against any speech or a policy or practice of inciting violence and sectarianism». The document also included the principles of «criminalize all terrorist activities practiced by the enemies of Iraq Baath Party groups and al-Qaida or any pleading gathering violence and terrorism to achieve its objectives.
    In this context,, Asadi stressed that the «honor this document was shared with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki was also held a meeting with the leader of the Islamic Supreme Council Ammar al-Hakim, who believed that his initiative complementary to this initiative and it is supported by all the power. He said al-Asadi that «the meeting will brings us together with Parliament Speaker Osama Najafi and we plan to conduct interviews Links with other leaders in the country, such as the Kurdish leadership and the leader of the Iraqi List, Iyad Allawi, and the brothers of the Sadrist movement», pointing out that «it was agreed to form a higher committee to study the proposals, opinions and responses received from various leaders in order to develop a practical formula it can develop an integrated political initiative involving everyone does not represent the point of view of one party or another.
    For his part, considered Talal Zobaie, a member of parliament for the coalition in Iraq, that «such initiatives are important but it will not lead to the solution of the deepening political crisis in the country, as owners but hopes to lead to resolving the crisis. Zobaie added that «the importance of such initiatives lies in the fact that everyone and all parties now believe that there is no solution to the Iraq crisis only in failure project sectarian and defeat the and that there is no victor from the adoption of such a letter. He explained that «there are those who tried to plant in the hearts of the people that the Sunnis in Iraq terrorists and Tkferrion and the Shiite militias and fake owners سيطرات and which is rejected by the majority of the people».
    On the other hand, called Saleh al-Mutlaq, the deputy prime minister, citizens and security forces to unite and not to allow terrorist forces Almilishawih and the achievement of its objectives in preventing people from going to mosques, schools and the exercise of their work and the search for livelihood. A statement issued by the Office Mutlaq during his visit yesterday to the area Sedea west of Baghdad, the Deputy Prime Minister Download «police and security agencies the greatest responsibility to protect citizens and their property stressing the importance of arresting the criminals before they carry out their operations, criminal and zero tolerance with those who try to breach security and making threats sectarianism ».


  2. #2
    Sadr Gives Maliki 'Final Warning'

    By: Ali Abel Sadah for Al-Monitor Iraq Pulse Posted on May 29.

    What did controversial Iraqi Shiite leader Muqtada al-Sadr mean when he issued on May 27 “a final warning to the government to assume its duty of protecting the people"?

    Summary :
    Shiite leader Muqtada al-Sadr has issued a warning to Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki to withdraw militants from the streets amid a series of devastating car bombings throughout Iraq.
    Original Title:
    Muqtada al-Sadr: A Final Call to Maliki After a Series of Bombings in Baghdad
    Author: Ali Abel Sadah
    Translated by: Naria Tanoukhi

    Categories : Originals Iraq Security

    Political observers in Iraq were expecting one of the most prominent Shiite leaders opposed to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki to leave the Iraqi National Alliance, and [thus] end the political majority of the Shiite forces in the country.

    Sadr's call came after a series of bloody acts of violence, including 10 car bombs that targeted Shiite neighborhoods in the capital and resulted in the killing of at least 70 people. Sadr said in the statement that "terrorism has influence and control in Iraq. They (militants) frequently step up their bombings, which are met by mere condemnation or silence by all parties."

    He added that "the people are now without a government to protect them and are facing terrorism without help from anyone." The Shiite leader called on Iraqis to “eliminate hatred from the hearts, defuse sectarian rancor, and return to God."

    "As for the government, it must prosecute and expel incompetent and disloyal members of the security corps who are only after power and recognition,” he added.

    This is not the first time that Sadr has given advice to the Maliki government on security issues. In his latest statement, he reiterated his call for "[the need to] consolidate intelligence efforts by using the correct methods and working hard to defuse sectarian tension."

    However, Sadr’s statement clearly indicated that Maliki wants to engage in an internal war in the country. He said, "We have learned that the prime minister wants to declare the start of a sectarian war in Iraq."

    Sadr called on the government to "unite [political forces], but not through banquets and economic forums attended by Israelis, but purely national meetings which I have called for and accepted to attend."

    Sadr concluded his statement and calls for the people and government by saying: "This is the last call I make to the people on one hand, and the government on the other hand. Forewarned is forearmed. Oh God, I have warned."

    Sadr's position coincided with security developments that followed a series of bombings. Armed men deployed in towns in central Baghdad and its suburbs. Eyewitnesses and security sources provided conflicting accounts regarding the identity of the gunmen, but some stated that they belong to the Asaib Ahl al-Haq.

    Asaib Ahl al-Haq is an insurgent group that defected from the Sadrist current about five years ago. Last year, Qais al-Khazali, the group’s leader, expressed [favorable] positions toward the prime minister and declared that [his group] was defending the Shiites in Iraq. This raised the concerns of Sunni parties in the government.

    In his statement, Sadr gave Maliki an ultimatum, calling on him to withdraw the Asaib Ahl al-Haq militants from the streets of Baghdad within 24 hours.

    A senior security source in the Ministry of Interior told Al-Monitor that “special forces deployed in the streets of Baghdad, following news about the spread of militants in some towns. But he denied knowledge of who the insurgents are affiliated with."

    Sadr’s warnings were immediately accepted by the Sunnis. The protesters in Anbar "welcomed" Sadr’s "ultimatum to Maliki to withdraw the Asaib Ahl al-Haq militias" from the streets of Baghdad.

    Abdul-Razzaq al-Shammari, spokesman of the political bureau of the protest square in Ramadi, said that the protesters "support the step taken by Muqtada al-Sadr." In an interview with Al-Monitor’s correspondent, he said that "all Arab religious and social authorities and tribal leaders in the southern provinces should take a similar step before a human catastrophe happens in Baghdad." He said that the militias are still committing criminal acts in Baghdad.

    The Iraqi public is accustomed to strong statements by Sadr against his Shiite ally and rival Maliki. However, their strategic alliance has never been broken since the formation of a Shiite-dominated government as a result of the alliance between the Dawa Party and the Sadrist movement. Still, this does not mean that Sadr is not considering overthrowing Maliki, and the security deterioration may be an opportunity to do that.

    Maha al-Douri, a Shiite politician in the Sadrist movement, called on Maliki to resign as prime minister.

    Douri told Al-Monitor, "Maliki has two options, either to step down or [waive the post of prime minister] to a Shiite figure in the Iraqi National Alliance." Douri said this would "spare the bloodshed of Iraqis."

    Ali Abel Sadah is a Baghdad-based writer for both Iraqi and Arab media. He has been a managing editor for local newspapers as well as a political and cultural reporter for more than 10 years



    Last edited by RED LILY; 05-30-2013 at 03:49 PM.

  3. #3
    Iraqi Kurdish Opposition
    Parties Oppose Referendum

    By: Abdel Hamid Zebari for Al-Monitor Iraq Pulse Posted on May 29.

    The call made by Iraqi Kurdistan region President Massoud Barzani to put the recent KRG draft constitution to a referendum was officially rejected by the Kurdish opposition forces in the region. The latter consist of the Movement for Change, the Islamic Group and the Kurdistan Islamic Union, and they have stressed the need to reach a political consensus on the draft.

    Summary :
    Iraqi Kurdish opposition parties insist that Kurdistan region President Massoud Barzani submit the draft constitution to the parliament.
    Original Title:
    Kurdish Opposition Strongly Rejects Draft Constitution of the Kurdistan Region
    Author: Abdel Hamid Zebari
    Translated by: Sami-Joe Abboud and Sahar Ghoussoub

    Categories : Originals Iraq Security

    On Sunday, May 26, Barzani delivered a speech in Erbil in front of a large crowd of his supporters on the occasion of the anniversary of the outbreak of the Kurdish Coughlan revolution, which was led by his Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) in the mid-1970s against the former Iraqi regime.

    Following the setback of the Algiers agreement between the shah of Iran and the Iraqi government in 1975, and under the guidance of his father Mullah Mustafa, Barzani, together with his brother Idris Barzani and a group of his comrades, organized the ranks of the peshmerga and established an interim command for the KDP to defend the Kurds and Kurdistan. This set the stage for the outbreak of the Gulan Revolution on May 26, 1976.

    Barzani said in a speech he delivered in Kurdish in front of a large crowd of supporters waving yellow flags of the party and photos of Barzani: “There are those who talk about the need to ensure a political consensus on this draft constitution. They forget that this draft was approved at the time by 36 political parties in the Iraqi Kurdistan region; 96 MPs approved the project while only one opposed it. This in itself is described as a political consensus on this draft constitution.”

    Barzani added that the draft constitution has given rise to many debates, and there are those who tried to impose their own temperament or narrow partisan interests on this issue, but the constitution is a social contract that concerns all people.

    Barzani said: “We have been very flexible recently regarding this issue. We asked all parties to give us their comments and observations on the constitution, but we have not received any positive response. It seems that some of the parties that are objecting to changing the ruling regime from a presidential to parliamentary system have not carefully studied the draft project, as the first article stipulates that the ruling system in the Kurdistan region is parliamentary. I believe that their objection is based on political reasons.”

    “We tried to hold a referendum on the draft constitution in conjunction with the July 25 elections in 2009, but the [Electoral] Commission informed us that it was not able to do so, not to mention that we were later on preoccupied by the events and crises that hit Iraq, in addition to the internal problems of the Kurdistan region. We insisted on holding a referendum on the draft law, because we believe that it is the right of the people to decide and that the president of the Kurdistan region does not have the authority to approve the constitution, as it is up to the people to decide,” he added.

    Barzani called upon the parties of the Iraqi Kurdistan region not to take away the people’s right to approve the constitution. “In order to distance the constitution from political bickering and partisan interests, I call on all Kurdish parties and forces to think of their people and their future, and not to object to their right to decide. It would be unfair to let political parties decide on the constitution on behalf of the people,” he said.

    While Barzani renewed his call to hold a referendum on the draft constitution, the Kurdish opposition forces in the Iraqi Kurdistan parliament (the Movement for Change, the Islamic Group, and the Kurdistan Islamic Union) were swift to express their rejection, demanding a national consensus on the draft project.

    “While all opposition forces as well as jurists and intellectuals in the region stress the need to amend the draft constitution and submit it to parliament, Barzani is calling on putting the constitution to a referendum,” the opposition forces said in a statement.

    “The decision to hold a referendum on the draft constitution is the prerogative of the parliament of the Kurdistan region, in coordination with the government and the General Election Commission,” added the statement.

    Incidentally, the three Iraqi Kurdish opposition forces secured 35 seats out of 111 in the Kurdistan regional parliament during the 2009 elections. The seats were distributed among the opposition forces as follows: The Movement for Change received 25 seats, the Islamic Group was allocated four seats, and the Kurdistan Islamic Union obtained six. These forces strongly oppose a popular referendum on the draft constitution, which would decide whether the constitution is to enter into force or not, depending on the majority votes.

    Speaking to Al-Monitor, Adnan Osman, a member of the Movement for Change, said that “the majority of the Kurdish parties support the resubmission of the constitution to parliament, while the KDP, led by Barzani, is the only party opposing these amendments.”

    He stressed that “by insisting on holding a referendum on this issue, Barzani is pushing toward fragmenting the Kurdish political forces and highlighting the differences between political parties, at a time when we need political solidarity to face the challenges in the Iraqi Kurdistan region.”

    “Should a referendum be held on the draft constitution, the opposition will mobilize the Kurdish street to vote against it. We are calling for the formation of a new committee and the amendment of some of the items, which do not require a lot of time,” he added.

    Osman also criticized “[Barzani’s] insistence on voting on the constitution despite the many contradictions it includes,” stressing that “we are demanding a constitution that is based on democratic rules and in accordance with the applicable political system.”

    According to Osman, the most prominent demand of the Kurdish opposition is to change the political system in the Kurdistan region from a presidential to a parliamentary system, stressing that “in light of the existing provisions, the Iraqi Kurdistan region is a presidential system, where the president enjoys absolute powers. This is unacceptable in democratic regimes and we are demanding to change these provisions according to the political system.”

    For his part, the assistant secretary-general of the Kurdistan Islamic Union, Salah al-Din Babiker, said in an interview with Al-Monitor: “The opposition forces have been demanding to reach a national consensus on the constitution. We demand that a plenary session be held by the different political parties to deliberate on the constitution and on how to amend some of its articles, so that it can be later on put to referendum. We are pushing in this direction, as the constitution needs to be approved by all political parties and forces in the Kurdistan region.”

    Furthermore, Zana Roustay, a member of the Union of Kurdistan Parliamentarians and a former member of the Kurdistan regional parliament with the opposition Islamic Group of Kurdistan, said, “If the constitution draft obtained a majority, it would be a simple majority and would only deepen the political differences in the Kurdistan region between the opposition and the regime.”

    Speaking to Al-Monitor, he said, “Should the draft constitution be put to a referendum, it will only receive about 55% of the majority votes. We would regret that the first constitution in Kurdish history did not win a landslide majority, which would adversely affect the political reality.”

    Roustay stressed the possibility of another scenario, saying, “If the majority voted against the constitution, the project would be canceled permanently. It is imperative that parliament convene and form a committee to draft another constitution.” However, he added, “Drafting the constitution could take many years, and that simple difference on the draft constitution could cost us many human and financial efforts.”

    Moreover, observers believe that the response of the opposition forces to Barzani’s decision to put the draft constitution to a referendum was “weak and did not go beyond releasing political statements.”

    Journalist and writer Rahman Gharib told Al-Monitor that “in order to gain legitimacy and support for the referendum, Barzani has mobilized the Kurdish street, as he is well aware that the battlefield is the street and not by issuing political statements as the opposition is doing.”

    “If the opposition was sincere in its objection, why does it not go down to the street, rally to express its objection by raising banners: No to the constitution!” he added.

    The proposed draft constitution of the Kurdistan region consists of 122 articles, and the region has been drafting it for nearly seven years. However, the strong emergence of the opposition on the political scene after the 2009 elections has prevented the two major parties — the Barzani-led KDP and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), led by Iraqi President Jalal Talabani — from putting it to a popular referendum.

    Abdel Hamid Zebari is a contributing writer for Al-Monitor’s Iraq Pulse. A reporter from Erbil who works in print journalism and radio, he has published several reports in local and world media, including Agence France-Press and Radio Free Iraq (Radio Free Europe).


  4. #4
    Watermelon calls to dissolve the parliament and the government and early elections

    30-05-2013 | (Voice of Iraq)

    Alsumaria News / Wasit
    Secretary-General called for national bloc white beauty of watermelon, Thursday, to dissolve the House of Representatives and the government and early elections, while carrying all of the authority responsible for the blood, called for an end to the bloody series in the country.
    The melon in an interview for "Alsumaria News", "The scenes of destruction and daily killings in the capital, Baghdad became unbearable, and pat deficits and imbalances in the performance of the security services and clear to all," calling for "the dissolution of parliament and the government and early elections come the government and crew of a new security capable to protect people's lives and property and honor. "
    He pointed out that "every drop of blood of innocent ask every spirit souls, is the responsibility of all those in power, without exception," and urged to "put an end to this bloody series."
    He noted that "the remains of the victims strewn in front of our eyes, in light of the inability fully to the security services before Hurricane terrorist devastating," adding that "If there is a shred of decency left in the forehead of any Iraqi official, he should submit an application to dissolve the parliament and the government and call for early elections . "
    Baghdad has seen this morning, killing 4 people and injuring 13 others detonated in the neighborhood of banks in eastern Baghdad, was killed three and wounded 11 others in a car bombing in the compound Almhn south of Baghdad, as well as killing two policemen and injuring 6 others in a car bomb explosion near a hospital Abdul Majid Hussein Karrada district.
    It is noteworthy that Baghdad has seen, on Wednesday (29 May 2013), killing 10 people and injuring 34 others blew a double car bomb and an explosive device in the Ghazaliya area west of the capital, while 15 people were killed and 39 others were injured in the bombing al-Jihad neighborhood in southern Baghdad.


  5. #5
    MP calls to change the senior officers in the Interior and defense ministries
    30/05/2013 09:34:00

    BAGHDAD / NINA / The MP, of Motahedoon coalition, Mohammad Iqbal called on the government to change the security leaders, including the undersecretaries of the ministries of interior, defense and national security.

    He said in a press statement today 30, May that "those who make the security vision need to be changed not junior officers who are just implementers for the security plans."

    Omar stressed that "any change is supposed to include some of the leaders in the security ministries and the intelligence service who failed and some of the national security figures."



    Sadrist MP stresses necessity of nominating security ministers
    Thursday, 30 May 2013 07:14 | PDF | Print | E-mail

    Baghdad (AIN) –MP, Yousif al-Taai, of al-Ahrar bloc within the Sadr Trend stressed the necessity of nominating the security ministers rather than running the security ministries by acting ministers in addition to changing the security leasers to sustain security in a better way.

    Speaking to All Iraq News Agency (AIN), he said "One of the most important and essential points is to run the security ministries by original ministers rather than acting ones in order to make the original ones hold the responsibility for the security breaches and failure of the security plans."

    "We do not support running the ministries by acting ministers," he added, noting that "The lack of the original ministers contributed in the lack of security."

    He stressed the necessity of "Nominating the qualified and experienced security ministers to be able to run the security file."



    Last edited by RED LILY; 05-30-2013 at 03:58 PM.

  6. #6
    Zebari predicts removing Iraq out from Chapter Seven at the end of 2015

    30/05/2013 12:03:00

    BAGHDAD / NINA / Iraqi Foreign Minister, Hoshyar Zebari said Iraq has paid to Kuwait 41 billion out of $ 52 billion in compensation for the former regime's invasion to Kuwait in 1990.

    He said in a news conference on Thursday 30, May that Iraq should pay the remaining amount of $ 11 billion dollars in order to get it out completely from Chapter VII.

    Zebari predicted that Iraq will complete paying this compensation at the end of 2015.

    Last edited by RED LILY; 05-30-2013 at 03:58 PM.

  7. #7
    MP: The root of the violence in Iraq is political , so as the solution
    30/05/2013 12:50:00

    BAGHDAD / NINA / The head of the Virtue bloc, Ammar Toh'ma held the political blocs the responsible of the security deterioration due to their own interests and focusing on their differences with each other, which provide a suitable environment for the continuation of criminal acts of terrorism.

    He said in a press statement on Thursday 30, May: "We have not noticed any serious measures to hold accountable for the corrupters , especially with the widespread of the corruption in state institutions and security, which provided the terrorism opportunities to break more easily.

    He added: "The solution for the deterioration of the security cannot be achieved by changing the commanders of security here or there, because the root of the violence in Iraq is political and the solution must be political not by militarily measures.

    It is mentioned that Baghdad and a number of provinces have seen today a series of bombings, which killed and injured dozens of citizens. "


  8. #8
    Maliki's alliance calls preachers to call for national unity during Friday prayer
    Thursday, 30 May 2013 07:55

    Baghdad (AIN) –MP, Ali al-Allaq, of the State of Law Coalition headed by the Premier, Nouri al-Maliki, called the preachers to call for the national unity while performing Friday Prayer.

    Speaking to All Iraq News Agency (AIN), he said "There are some foreign sides release Fatwa that is sectarian where it must be ignored and rejected."

    "There should be a meeting to the clergymen of all sects to unite their sermons in addition to holding joint prayers and conferences that symbolize the Iraqi Islamic unity," he added.

    "They should also specify their sermons to support the national unity and reduce the sectarian tensions because the clergymen hold the responsibility of informing the public over forbidding fighting and murder," he concluded.


  9. #9
    Currency Auctions

    Announcement No. (2390)

    The latest daily currency auction was held in the Central Bank of Iraq on the 30-May-2013. The results were as follows:

    Details Notes
    Number of banks 27
    Auction price selling dinar / US$ 1166
    Auction price buying dinar / US$ -----
    Amount sold at auction price (US$) 268,853,000
    Amount purchased at Auction price (US$) -----
    Total offers for buying (US$) 268,853,000
    Total offers for selling (US$) -----

    Exchange rates

  10. #10
    The Syrian Heart of Darkness

    Syria increasingly seems to have descended into complete savagery. Most recently comes gruesome news from the battle for Qusayr and a massacre in the nearby Sunni village of Bayda. Pro-Assad militiamen surrounded Bayda and then apparently proceeded to massacre its people, including the former imam of the village who had angered his community by remaining supportive of the Assad regime. Accounts of toddlers and babies shot dead as they huddled with their mothers send a chill through any human reader. Those carrying out atrocities do not appear restricted to the regime and its allies: accounts of rebel massacres and acts of horror abound as well. The latest involves a video of a rebel commander biting into the internal organs of a slain enemy.

    No one kills Muslims like Muslims do. And then they declare victory.

    As I discussed these terrible events with someone, they exclaimed to me “No one kills Muslims like Muslims do. And then they declare victory.” The real issue, however, is not about religion. It’s about human behaviour in the very worst of conflicts–the sectarian struggles, the civil wars and the life-and-death contests that pit former neighbours against one another. Rwanda, the Congo, the former Yugoslavia and Columbia, among many others, knew similar savagery during their civil wars and these are not Muslim countries, of course. Until events are upon us, none of us can really know what we would or would not do in sufficiently extreme circumstances.

    The best known novelist in English to address such questions was undoubtedly Joseph Conrad. In Heart of Darkness, Conrad explored the depths of human nature and the hypocrisy of colonialism and “civilization.” Peering into his own soul and unencumbered by the gloss of civilization or any checks upon his own power and impulses, the book’s anti-hero finds himself on his death bed deep in the darkest jungles of the Congo. He memorably pronounces his last words: “the horror, the horror.”

    Similar themes appear in Conrad’s other works. In Lord Jim, the main character daydreams of his own heroism and chivalry. When a moment of truth arrives, however, he cravenly abandons his post as first mate on a sinking ferryboat carrying pilgrims to Mecca, leaving the passengers to perish. He spends the rest of his life fleeing his own cowardice. Lord Jim finds redemption only at the end of his life with an act of self-sacrifice, on behalf of an island community in the South Seas that adopted him and accepted him.

    In The Secret Agent, a band of anarchists plot to blow things up in early twentieth-century London and justify their plans with abstract principles and ideologies. Government spies and agents provocateurs, meanwhile, end up carrying out bombings themselves in an effort to root out the anarchists, and similarly justify all their actions through abstract ideological principles devoid of empathy for their fellow humans.

    More Sunni innocents will lose their lives in yet more atrocities, followed by more Alaawi innocents, while Syria’s other communities do their best to stay out of the storm.

    Joseph Conrad, you see, never trusted governments, rebels or their ideologies. His novels and explorations of human nature served up equal doses of irony and scorn for all of them. Although he wrote in English, Conrad only learned English in his twenties. He came from Poland–and he had seen his country invaded, occupied, subjugated and divided by the Great Powers of Europe, all accompanied by the rhetoric of civilization, morality and high principles. Some Conrad scholars believe that the only value he consequently put much faith in was ‘fidelity’–duty to one’s family, community or nation. For Conrad, the rest may have been just so much hypocrisy– malleable morality and ethics that shift according to the context and the need.

    People in Syria today understand this kind of ‘fidelity’ all too well today. As the colonially mapped social construction of ‘Syria’ increasingly unravels, there remains only Sunnis, Alaawis, Kurds, Christians and Druze. In the most extreme of circumstances each community comes face to face with its own heart of darkness, its own cowardice and its own loss of empathy for others. Sunni massacres of countless Alaawis over the centuries, as well as a few more recent ones in the last 3 years, preceded the massacre of Sunnis in Bayda. More Sunni innocents will lose their lives in yet more atrocities, followed by more Alaawi innocents, while Syria’s other communities do their best to stay out of the storm. The gruesome spiral of violence continues until only ‘fidelity’ remains.

    David Romano has been a Rudaw columnist since August 2010. He is the Thomas G. Strong Professor of Middle East Politics at Missouri State University and author of The Kurdish Nationalist Movement (2006, Cambridge University Press).

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